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Michael McCullough

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Measures and Translations

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Evolution and Human Behavior Laboratory



Measures and Translations


Much of our work on forgiveness in the past few years has used a self-report measure called the Trasngression-Related Interpersonal Motivations (TRIM) Inventory. The version of the TRIM that is most widely in use right now is the TRIM-12. Here is a version of the TRIM-12 that includes scoring instructions, and techincal and psychometric information. All credit to Dr. Susan Wade (now Susan Wade Brown) for developing these items as part of her doctoral dissertation at Fuller Theological Seminary in Pasadena, CA.

More recently, we have also been using an 18-item form of the TRIM that includes items for measuring positive, benevolent motivations. The items comprising the 18-item form appear in this article. Here are the items and scoring instructions.


Dutch adaptation/translation due to J. Karremans and P. A. M. Van Lange (2004). European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 207-227.
Another Dutch Translation of the TRIM-18 with a description, from Coby Gerlsma at the University of Groningen
Japanese translation due to Nami Takata at Kurume University.
Latvian translation due to Saiva Brudere-Ruska and V.Perepjolkina at the Riga Teacher Training and Education Management Academy (RTTEMA).
Hebrew translation due to Prof. Dr. Avi Besser, Department of Behavioral Sciences & Center for Research in Personality, Life Transitions, and Stressful Life Events, Sapir Academic College.
Polish translation of the TRIM-12, and TRIM-18 due to Marlena Kossakowska at the SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poland
German translation by the Personality and Assessment Group at the Dept. of Psychology, University of Zurich. Contact R. Proyer for details.
German translation of the TRIM-18
German translation of the benevolence items from the TRIM-18
Another Spanish Translation by Carlos Emilio Zalles Díaz
Spanish translation by Mónica Guzmán at the Universidad Catolica Católica del Norte of Chile.
Portuguese translation by Sonia Sousa.
Persian translation by Farshad Lavafpoor.
Urdu Version by Dr. Riffat Sadiq and Dr. Amena Zehra Ali at the University of Karachi.
Another Urdu Version by Madiha Nazeer and Prof. Dr. Rukhsana Kausar, Institute of Applied Psychology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.


Much of our initial work on gratitude has been devoted to examining the disposition to experience gratitude as a relatively stable affective trait. To measure this affective trait, we have developed a short scale called the Gratitude Questionnaire, whose current incarnation consists of six short self-report items. The GQ-6 is available here for download in PDF format. This document includes some interpretative material that allows one to determine where a person's score on the GQ-6 falls relative to a large sample of adults who recently completed the measure. Finally, this short technical document describes the psychometric properties of the scale, including some of the most important evidence for its reliability and validity.


German translation by the Personality and Assessment Group at the Dept. of Psychology, University of Zurich. Contact R. Proyer for details.
Chinese translation of the GQ-6 that Joyce Leong at the Chinese University of Hong Kong developed, including the back-translation.
Another Chinese translation of the GQ-6 that Lung Hung Chen and colleagues developed with a sample of Taiwanese undergraduates.
Japanese translation (five items, not six) by Futoshi Kobayashi at Miyazaki International College.
Japanese translation by Katsunori Sumi at Nagoya Institute of Technology.
Spanish translation of the GQ-6 by Marina BelÚndez at the Universidad de Alicante.
Hungarian translation, plus the English back-translation, from Magdolna Garay in the PPKE BTK Psychology Department.
Polish translation, due to Marlena Kossakowska at the Warsaw School of Social Sciences and Humanities.
Farsi translation, due to Naser Aghababai at the Department of Psychology, University of Tehran.
Lithuanian translation, due to Eglė Sabaitytė from Mykolas Romeris University
Indonesian Translation, due to Inatsa Latvia, a psychology student at the Indonesian University of Education.
Swedish translation of the GQ-6 by Sara Hammarkrantz, featured in the book "Lycka på fullt allvar - en introduktion till positiv psykologi" by Sara Hammarkrantz and Katarina Blom. 
Filipino translation of the GQ-6 by Dr. Lakandupil Garcia​, doctor of translation and professor at De La Salle University.
Greek translation of the GQ-6 by Papadopoulou Vasiliki and Lykidou Stauroula, students of Psychology at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki​.

Other information about measuring gratitude can be located in Emmons, R. A., McCullough, M. E., & Tsang, J. (2003). The assessment of gratitude. In S. J. Lopez and C. R. Snyder (Eds.). Handbook of positive psychology assessment (pp. 327-341). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Miller, W., Shepperd, J. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2013). Evaluating the religious commitment inventory for adolescents. Psychology of Spirituality & Religion, 5, 233-241. doi: 10.1037/a0031694

Worthington, E. L., Jr., Wade, N. G., Hight, T. L., Ripley, J. S., McCullough, M. E., Berry, J. W., Berry, J. T., Schmidt, M. M., Berry, J. T., Bursley, K. H., & O'Connor, L. (2003). The Religious Commitment Inventory-10: Development, refinement, and validation of a brief scale for research and counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50, 84-96.