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玉历宝钞
The Jade Guidebook

The Tenth Court

photo by DKJ

The Tenth Court
The Realm of Lord Zhuǎn Lún
第十殿 转轮王

Dì-Shí Diàn Zhuǎn Lún Wáng

第十殿 轉輪王
His Infernal Majesty Zhuǎn Lún [literally "He who turns the wheel;" a chakravartti raja] reigns in the Dark Land, below the Wòjiāo rock to the due east, 转轮王,殿居阴间沃礁石外,正东方,

Zhuǎn Lún wáng, diàn jū yīnjiān Wòjiāoshí wài, zhèngdōng fāng,

轉輪王,殿居陰間沃礁石外,正東方,
just opposite our own polluted world. 直对五浊世界的地方。

zhí duì wǔ zhuóshì jiè de dìfang.

直對五濁世界的地方。
There he has constructed six bridges, those of gold, silver, jade, stone, or wooden planks (leading to reincarnations), plus the Bridge of Sorrows (leading into Hell).

[Note: In some representations, the sixth bridge, of bamboo, is reserved for the worst sinners and leads to animal incarnations. In some painted representations, the bridges are placed in other courts, and not necessarily together. The Bridge of Sorrows (Nàihé Qiáo), here written 奈何橋 but probably better written, as in most paintings, 奈河橋, "bridge over the River of Sorrows" logically seems to belong at the beginning of the system, and is variously placed in different sets of paintings.]
设有金、银、玉、石、木板,奈何等六座桥。

Shèyǒu jīn, yín, yù, shí, mùbǎn, nàihé děng liù zuò qiáo.

設有金、銀、玉、石、木板,奈何等六座橋。
photo by DKJ
He examines the shades that are sent from the other courts, 专门管理各殿押解到的鬼魂,

Zhuānmén guǎnlǐ gè diàn yājiè dào de guǐhún,

專門管理各殿押解到的鬼魂,
and, according to their deserts, 分别核定其罪福的大小,

fēnbié hédìng qí zuì fú de dàxiǎo,

分別核定其罪福的大小,
sends them back to earth for rebirth. 发往四大部洲的适当地方投生。

fāwǎng Sìdà bù zhōu de shìdàng dìfang tóushēng.

發往四大部洲的適當地方投生。
Will they be reborn as men or women? 该投生为男身,或女身?

Gāi tóushēng wéi nán shēn, huò nǚ shēn?

該投生爲男身,或女身?
Will they have long or short lives? 长寿、或短命?

Chángshòu, huò duǎnmìng?

長壽、或短命?
Will they be born in rich families or poor ones? 生富贵之家,或投生贫贱之家?

Shēng fù guì zhī jiā, huò tóushēng pínjiàn zhī jiā?

生富貴之家,或投生貧賤之家?
Will they be reborn as people or animals? 投生人道或畜牲道?

Tóushēng réndào huò chùshēng dào?

投生人道或畜牲道?
All these rebirths are carefully taken down one by one. 将这些投生的人,一一地详细记载,

Jiāng zhè xiē tóushēng de rén, yīyī dì xiángxì jìzǎi,

將這些投生的人,一一地詳細記載,
And each month a list is forwarded to the first court and transmitted on to [the infernal capital at] Fēngdū. 每月聚集起来,通知第一殿,在注册后,送呈酆都。

Měiyuè jùjí qǐlái, tōngzhī dìyī diàn, zài zhùcè hòu, sòngchéng fēng dōu.

每月聚集起來,通知第一殿,在註冊後,送呈酆都。
The netherworld regulations provide every beast, bird, fish, or insect, 再根据阴律,分为:胎生、卵生、湿生、化生;

Zài gēnjù yīn lǜ, fēnwéi: tāishēng, luǎnshēng, shī shēng, huàshēng;

再根據陰律,分爲:胎生、卵生、濕生、化生;
whether without feet, or with two feet, or four feet, or many feet, 无足、两足、四足、多足、等类。

wú zú, liǎng zú, sì zú, duō zú, děnglèi.

無足、兩足、四足、多足、等類。
shall after death become a jiàn or a guǐ.

[Jiàn , also read jī, sometimes miswritten zhān/zhǎn , are the ghosts of deceased ghosts, a category of being that frightens normal ghosts (guǐ ) as much as normal ghosts frighten the living.]
各类的生灵,死后为聻鬼。

gèlèi de shēnglíng, sǐhòu wéi jiànguǐ.

各類的生靈,死後爲聻鬼。
But it shall, according to its sins or merits be reborn. 再依罪、德之大小,依次投胎:

Zài yī zuì, dé zhī dà xiǎo, yīcì tóutāi:

再依罪、德之大小,依次投胎:
Some live for but a year, or but a season, or but a day. 有些一年或一季即死;有些朝生暮死。

Yǒuxiē yīnián huò yī jì jí sǐ; yǒuxiē zhāoshēngmùsǐ.

有些一年或一季即死;有些朝生暮死。
and undergo change again and again. 反复地依罪变换。

fǎnfù dì yī zuì biànhuàn.

反復地依罪變換。
[As to animals killed and eaten,] no matter whether they had to be killed and thus died, 不管是必定被杀而死;

Bùguǎn shì bìdìng bèishā ér sǐ;

不管是必定被殺而死;
or whether they were unnecessarily killed and died 或不一定被杀而死,

huò bùyīdìng bèishā ér sǐ,

或不一定被殺而死,
they will pass to the Hall of the Great Wheel (where the Wheel of Reincarnation goes around) , 一律送到转劫所内,

yīlǜ sòng dào Zhuǎn Jié Suǒ nèi,

一律送到轉劫所內,
and then, when their earthly sins have been examined, they will be sent back to enjoy their proper retribution. 考查、计算其在世时所犯的过错,分发各方去受报。

kǎochá, jìsuàn qí zàishì shí suǒ fàn de guòcuò, fēnfā gèfāng qù shòu bào.

考查、計算其在世時所犯的過錯,分發各方去受報。
At the end of every year a report will be forwarded to Fēngdū. 到了岁终之时,聚集受报情形,送交酆都备案。

Dào le suìzhōng zhī shí, jùjí shòu bào qíngxing, sòngjiāo Fēngdū bèi'àn.

到了歲終之時,聚集受報情形,送交酆都備案。


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EXCURSUS ON THOSE WHO LEARN SPELLS TO EVADE PUNISHMENT

Some scholars who have vigorously studied the Book of Changes, 有些在阳世熟读易经的读书人;

Yǒuxiē zài yángshì shúdú Yìjīng de dúshūrén;

有些在陽世熟讀易經的讀書人;
or priests who have chanted scriptures and incantations, 或勤诵经咒的僧人道士,

huò qín sòngjīng zhòu de sēngrén dàoshi,

或勤誦經咒的僧人道士,
when brought to the netherworld for the sins they have committed 因犯罪被勾到阴间时,

yīn fànzuì bèi gōu dào yīnjiān shí,

因犯罪被勾到陰間時,
chant the Book of Changes or incantations till the dungeons cannot punish them, 由于念诵易经、咒语,以致诸地狱不能用刑,

yóuyú niànsòng Yìjīng, zhòuyǔ, yǐzhì zhū dìyù bùnéngyòng xíng,

由於念誦易經、咒語,以致諸地獄不能用刑,
which worsens their demerits, and so they are taken directly to this court. 使他受苦报的,就押解到本殿。

shǐ tā shòukǔ bào de, jiù yājiè dào běn diàn.

使他受苦報的,就押解到本殿。
where their names, transgressions, and appearance are taken down in a book, called the Depravity Book, kept for the purpose, 按照姓名,注明所犯罪刑,并且绘出本来的面目,名叫堕落生册,依据此册,

ànzhào xìngmíng, zhùmíng suǒ fànzuì xíng, bìngqiě huì chū běnlái de miànmù, míng jiào duòluò shēng cè, yījù cǐ cè,

按照姓名,註明所犯罪刑,並且繪出本來的面目,名叫墮落生冊,依據此冊,
and they are forwarded to the goddess Grandmother Mèng's Terrace of Drunken Oblivion 押交孟婆尊神的醧忘台下,

yā jiāo Mèngpó zūn shén de Yùwàng Tái xià,

押交孟婆尊神的醧忘臺下,
to be dosed with an elixir of forgetfulness. 灌饮迷汤,

guàn yǐn mítāng,

灌飲迷湯,
Then demon soldiers take them to be born again in the world, 再派鬼卒押投人胎,令其在转世时,

Zài pài guǐzú yā tóu rén tāi, lìng qí zài zhuǎnshì shí,

再派鬼卒押投人胎,令其在轉世時,
where they die in the womb, or after a day or two or a hundred days or ten days, 死于母胎腹中,或者出生才一、二天;

sǐ yú mǔtāi fù zhōng, huòzhě chūshēng cái yī, èrtiān;

死於母胎腹中,或者出生才一、二天;
after a year or two; in any case they very soon die 或百天、十天;

huò bǎi tiān, shí tiān;

或百天、十天;
for a day, a week, or it may be a year, when they die once more; 或一年、二年,即很快死亡,

huò yīnián, èr nián, jí hěn kuài sǐwáng,

或一年、二年,即很快死亡,
but now they have forgotten the incantations (dharani) and spells of the Three Religions 使他忘记在世所学的三教真言、咒语。

shǐ tā wàngjì zàishì suǒ xué de Sānjiào zhēnyán, zhòuyǔ.

使他忘記在世所學的三教真言、咒語。
and they are carried off by more ferocious demons to the various Courts, 之后,再加差厉害的鬼卒、勾到各地狱,

zhī hòu, zàijiā chà lìhai de guǐzú, gōu dào gèdì yù,

之後,再加差厲害的鬼卒、勾到各地獄,
where their past lives are investigated, and they receive their proper punishment. 考查、察究前生所做恶事,补受苦报。

kǎochá, chájiū qiánshēng suǒ zuò è shì, bǔ shòukǔ bào.

考查、察究前生所做惡事,補受苦報。
All souls, whether their balance of good and evil is exact, 凡是解到功过各半;

Fánshì jiě dào gōngguò gèbàn;

凡是解到功過各半;
or their period of punishment is completed, 以及已受苦报期满;

yǐjí yǐ shòukǔ bào qīmǎn;

以及已受苦報期滿;
or their crimes are many and good deeds few, 功少过多的鬼魂,

gōng shǎo guòduō de guǐhún,

功少過多的鬼魂,
—all have their crimes and merits considered immediately; 立即斟酌其罪功,

lìjí zhēnzhuó qí zuì gōng,

立即斟酌其罪功,
and as soon as their future state has been decided, are reborn; 订定来生的福报后,投胎:

dìngdìng láishēng de fú bào hòu, tóutāi:

訂定來生的福報後,投胎:
Some are born beautiful, some ugly; 有些来生美丽;有些来生丑陋;

Yǒuxiē láishēng měilì; yǒuxiē láishēng chǒulòu;

有些來生美麗;有些來生醜陋;
Some are born to comfort, some to grievous toil; 有些生活安乐;有些生活劳苦。

Yǒuxiē shēnghuó ānlè; yǒuxiē shēnghuó láokǔ.

有些生活安樂;有些生活勞苦。
Some are sent to the houses of the rich, some the families of the poor. 确实发往何方富贵、贫贱之家的人,

Quèshí fāwǎng hé fāng fùguì, pínjiàn zhī jiāde rén,

確實發往何方富貴、貧賤之家的人,
But all must pass through the Grandmother Mèng's Terrace of Drunken Oblivion and drink her elixir of forgetfulness before being reborn. 即交到孟婆神的醧忘台下,饮迷汤后投胎。

Jíjiāo dào Mèngpóshén de Yùwàng tái xià, yǐn mítāng hòu tóutāi.

即交到孟婆神的醧忘臺下,飲迷湯後投胎。


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photo by DKJ

EXCURSUS ON WRONGED WOMEN

Amongst those shades, on their way to be born again in the world of human beings, 在本殿点名发放,投胎人道之时,

Zài běn diàn diǎnmíng fāfàng, tóutāi réndào zhī shí,

在本殿點名發放,投胎人道之時,
there are often to be found women who cry out, saying 常常有妇女苦苦哀求,供称:

chángcháng yǒu fùnǚ kǔkǔ āiqiú, gòngchēng:

常常有婦女苦苦哀求,供稱:
"There is still an old and bitter wrong to avenge, “还有切齿的冤仇未报,

"Hái yǒu qiēchǐ de yuānchóu wèi bào,

“還有切齒的冤仇未報,
I'd prefer to enter the ranks of [predatory] hungry ghosts; 甘心当饿鬼报仇,

gānxīn dāng èguǐ bàochóu,

甘心當餓鬼報仇,
I don't want to be born again as a person." 不愿做人。”

bùyuàn zuòrén."

不願做人。”
On examining them more closely it generally comes out that 经询问其情由后,发现:

Jīng xúnwèn qí qíngyóu hòu, fāxiàn:

經詢問其情由後,發現:
nearly every one of them is a woman who never married, 大多是未出嫁的少女,

Dà duō shì wèi chūjià de shàonǚ,

大多是未出嫁的少女,
or a woman of chaste character, who 或原本是心地贞洁的妇女,

huò yuánběn shì xīndì zhēnjié de fùnǚ,

或原本是心地貞潔的婦女,
was courted by some wicked young student, a high school or college student, 因为被读书中的不良少年、中学生、大学生等看上,

yīnwèi bèi dúshū zhòngdì bùliángshàonián, zhōngxuéshēng, dàxuéshēng děng kànshang,

因爲被讀書中的不良少年、中學生、大學生等看上,
who loved a pretty face, 由于贪爱她的美貌,

yóuyú tān ài tāde měimào,

由於貪愛她的美貌,
or who perhaps had an eye on her money, 或者图谋夺取的财物,

huòzhě túmóu duóqǔ de cáiwù,

或者圖謀奪取的財物,
and who became very attentive 乃献尽殷勤;

nǎi xiàn jìn yīnqín;

乃獻盡殷勤;
and made himself appealing in every way 百般投其所好,

bǎibān tóu qí suǒhào,

百般投其所好,
to entrap her by fair means or foul. 用尽计策,不择手段地诱惑成奸。

yòngjìn jìcè, bù zé shǒuduàn dì yòuhuò chéngjiān.

用盡計策,不擇手段地誘惑成姦。
Some such youths will mendaciously say, "I am not yet married, and will certainly hire a matchmaker to arrange our marriage." 有的片说﹔『我还没有结婚,一定会请媒婆去说亲迎娶。』

Yǒude piàn shuō﹔ "wǒ hái méiyǒu jiéhūn, yīdìng huì qǐng méipó qù shuōqīn yíngqǔ."

有的片說﹔『我還沒有結婚,一定會請媒婆去說親迎娶。』
Some use honeyed words to deceive a servant girl, hoping to take her as a concubine. 有的甜言蜜语,欺骗婢女,企图纳为小老婆。

Yǒude tiányán mìyǔ, qīpiàn bìnǚ, qǐtú nà wéi xiǎolǎopo.

有的甜言蜜語,欺騙婢女,企圖納爲小老婆。
Some mendaciously promise to look after aged parents, 有的骗说答应奉养她年老的双亲。

Yǒude piàn shuō dāying fèngyǎng tā niánlǎo de shuāngqīn.

有的騙說答應奉養她年老的雙親。
or offer to take care of her deceased husband's children. 或允许抚养好前夫的子女。

huò yǔnxǔ fǔyǎng hǎo qiánfū de zǐnǚ.

或允許撫養好前夫的子女。
And they say other such words, until they have wickedly won her love. 等等好话说尽,以致误被骗取感情,

děngděng hǎohuà shuō jìn, yǐzhì wù bèi piànqǔ gǎnqíng,

等等好話說盡,以致誤被騙取感情,
Thus the foolish woman beguiled, and thinks she can depend for life upon the person, 痴心地以为遇到可以依托终身的人,

chīxīn dì yǐwéi yùdào kěyǐ yītuō zhōngshēn de rén,

癡心地以爲遇到可以依託終身的人,
So she meekly listens to his demands, 因此柔顺地听从他的要求。

yīncǐ róushùn dì tīngcóng tāde yāoqiú.

因此柔順地聽從他的要求。
But when he has compromised the honor of her body, and played with her a while, 自从失节以身相与,玩弄一久,

Zìcóng shījié yǐ shēn xiāngyǔ, wánnòng yī jiǔ,

自從失節以身相與,玩弄一久,
a loathing gradually grows in him, 厌心渐生,

yàn xīn jiàn shēng,

厭心漸生,
the promised wedding and agreements are deferred over and over, and then he doesn't want to do it at all. 将答应的婚事与约定,一再拖延,不愿履行。

jiāng dāying de hūnshì yǔ yuēdìng, yīzài tuōyán, bùyuàn lǚxíng.

將答應的婚事與約定,一再拖延,不願履行。
Thoughtless sex becomes abandonment later. 企图始乱终弃。

Qǐtú shǐluànzhōngqì.

企圖始亂終棄。
He even spreads malicious talk and makes the scandal public, 甚至于反而口出恶言,宣扬丑闻,

shènzhìyú fǎn'ér kǒu chū èyán, xuānyáng chǒuwén,

甚至於反而口出惡言,宣揚醜聞,
so it becomes known to her parents and brothers. 以致令父母、兄弟知道;

yǐzhì lìng fùmǔ, xiōngdi zhīdào;

以致令父母、兄弟知道;
She is despised and disdained by her relatives, her friends, her neighbors. 被亲友、邻居轻视、鄙弃。

Bèi qīnyǒu, línjū qīngshì, bǐqì.

被親友、鄰居輕視、鄙棄。
She suffers heartless blame and shame. 遭来无情的责备与羞辱。

Zāo lái wúqíng de zébèi yǔ xiūrǔ.

遭來無情的責備與羞辱。
With no one to redress these wrongs, she is driven by shame to suicide. 冤屈无处申诉,而羞忿地自杀;

Yuānqū wúchù shēnsù, ér xiū fèn dì zìshā;

冤屈無處申訴,而羞忿地自殺;
or is driven by anger and melancholy to fatal sickness in her liver. 或者得到气郁的肝病而死亡。

huòzhě dédào qì yù de gān bìng ér sǐwáng.

或者得到氣鬱的肝病而死亡。
Then, after death, learning that the heartless thief 死后在阴间知道;这个负心的贼,

Sǐhòu zài yīnjiān zhīdào; zhège fùxīn de zéi,

死後在陰間知道;這個負心的賊,
is likely to succeed at the [imperial civil service] examination, 这次的科举考试将考中。

zhècì de kējǔ kǎoshì jiāng kǎozhòng.

這次的科舉考試將考中。
she immediately begs and implores to be allowed to go back and demand his death. 顿时忿恨难消,悲号哭泣地要求准予索命。

dùnshí fènhèn nán xiāo, bēiháo kūqì dì yāoqiú zhǔnyǔ suǒ mìng.

頓時忿恨難消,悲號哭泣地要求准予索命。
The infernal lords, upon investigating, see that it is true enough. 阎王细查,发觉果然是事实;

Yánwang xìchá, fājué guǒrán shì shìshí;

閻王細查,發覺果然是事實;
But that man's scheduled time on earth may not yet have expired, 但是该生阳寿未该终了,

Dànshì gāi shēng yángshòu wèi gāi zhōngliǎo,

但是該生陽壽未該終了,
or his ancestors' merit may not yet have been used up. 同时,他的祖德未享受完。

tóngshí, tāde zǔ dé wèi xiǎngshòu wán.

同時,他的祖德未享受完。
And so this court temporarily grants such a female shade a permit to enter the Examination Hall 本殿姑且准许该女鬼带着票令,进入考试的地方。

Běn diàn gūqiě zhǔnxǔ gāi nǚ guǐ dàizhe piào lìng, jìnrù kǎoshì de dìfang.

本殿姑且准許該女鬼帶著票令,進入考試的地方。
to hinder and confuse his examination paper, 阻止、惑乱他的考试;

zǔzhǐ, huòluàn tāde kǎoshì;

阻止、惑亂他的考試;
or to change the names on the published list of successful candidates; 或者更换榜上的名字。

huòzhě gēnghuàn bǎng shàng de míngzì.

或者更換榜上的名字。
and at last, when his final day arrives, 再等到命该绝之日,

zài děng dào mìng gāi jué zhī rì,

再等到命該絕之日,
it permits her to accompany the demon who carries the death-summons, 准予随同勾死鬼进门索命,

zhǔnyǔ suítóng gōu sǐguǐ jìnmén suǒ mìng,

准予隨同勾死鬼進門索命,
and drags the man to the First Court for examination of his offenses, and for judgment of the magnitude of the offenses. 勾到第一殿查核罪事,判断罪刑之轻重。

gōu dào dìyī diàn cháhé zuì shì, pànduàn zuì xíng zhī qīngzhòng.

勾到第一殿查核罪事,判斷罪刑之輕重。


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EXHORTATION FOR THE TENTH COURT

You who on the 17th of the 4th moon 世人假若在四月十七日,

Shìrén jiǎruò zài sìyuè shíqī rì,

世人假若在四月十七日,
swear to have a believing heart, receiving and obeying the precepts of the Jade Guidebook, and living with attention to them, 发誓要立下信心,遵奉玉历宝钞所述,知所警惕地做事。

fāshì yào lìxia xìnxīn, zūn fèng yù lì bǎochāo suǒ shù, zhī suǒ jǐngtì dì zuòshì.

發誓要立下信心,遵奉玉曆寶鈔所述,知所警惕地做事。
and who frequently make these words the subject of your conversation, 并且常常将以上的内容,向亲友们介绍、谈说的话,

bìngqiě chángcháng jiāng yǐshàng de nèiróng, xiàng qīnyǒumen jièshào, tánshuō dehuà,

並且常常將以上的內容,向親友們介紹、談說的話,
may in the life to come be born again amongst men 下辈子发阳世做人时,

xiàbèizi fā yángshì zuòrén shí,

下輩子發陽世做人時,
and escape contempt, and official punishments, and fire, and flood, and all injuries or accidents to the body. 不受轻视,不会遭遇官家刑罚、及水、火等身体的伤害与灾祸。

bù shòu qīngshì, bù huì zāoyù guānjiā xíngfá, jí shuǐ, huǒ děngshēn tǐ de shānghài yǔ zāihuò.

不受輕視,不會遭遇官家刑罰、及水、火等身體的傷害與災禍。

Shídiàn Cover Illustration

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