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Nican Mopohua (“Thus It Is Told”)


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Chapter 2: The Visit to the Bishop & the Second Apparition

(Go to English version of this chapter.)
040. In oacico itic altepetl, niman ic tlamelauh in itecpanchantzinco Obispo, in huel yancuican hualmohuicac Teopixcatlatoani, itocatzin catca D. Fray Juan de Zumárraga San Francisco Teopixqui. When he reached the center of the city, he went straight to the palace of the Bishop, the Governing Priest, who had just recently arrived; his name was Don Fray Juan de Zumárraga, a Franciscan Priest.
Form Challenge 040: A tëcpan is a palace (as a building or an institution), probably originally derrived from tëuctli, "lord." Analyze "i.tecpan.chan.tzin.co."
041. Auh in oacito niman ic moyeyecoa inic quimottiliz; quintlatlauhtia in itetlayecolticahuan in itlanencahua, inic conittotihue. And as soon as he got there, he then tries to see him; he begs his servants, his helpers, to go and tell him he needs to see him.
042. Ye achi huecautica in connotzaco, in ye omatlanahuatili in Tlatoahuani Obispo, inic calaquiz. After a long time, when the Reverend Bishop ordered that he enter, they came to call him;
043. Auh in oncalac niman ixpantzinco motlancuaquetz, mopechtecac, niman ye ic quimixpantilia quimopohuilia in iiyotzin in itlatoltzin Ilhuicac Cihuapilli in inetitlaniz: noihuanquimolhuilia in ixquich oquimahuixo, in oquittac, in oquicac. And as soon as he entered, first he knelt before him, he prostrated himself, then he reveals to him, he tells him the precious breath, the precious word of the Queen of Heaven, her message, and he also tells him everything that made his marvel, what he saw, what he heard.
Form Challenge 043: The word "Ilhuicac Cihuapilli" is translated "Queen of Heaven." Is that accurate?
044. Auh in oquicac in mochi itlatol, inetitlaniz, yuhquin amo cenca monelchiuhtzino, And having heard his whole story, his message, as if he didn't particularly believe it to be true,
045. quimonanquili, quimolhuili: "Nopiltzé, ma occepa tihuallaz, oc ihuaian nimitzcaquiz, huel oc itzinecan niquittaz, nicnemiliz in tlein ic otihualla in motlanequiliz, in motlaelehuiliz". he answered him, he said to him: "My son, you will come again. I will still hear you calmly, I will look at it carefully from the very beginning, I will consider the reason why your have come, your will, your desire".
046. Hualquiz tlaocoxtihuitz, inic amo niman oneltic in inetitlaniz". He left; he came out sad, because the errand entrusted to him was not immediately accepted.
047. Niman hualmocuep iz za ye icuac ipan cemilhuitl; niman onca huallamelauh in icpac tepetzintli. Then he returned, at the end of the day, then he came straight from there to the top of the little hill.
048. Auh ipantzinco acito in Ilhuicac Cihuapilli; iz zan ye oncan in canin acattopa quimottili, quimochialitica. He had the joy of meeting the Queen of Heaven; there exactly where she had appeared to him the fist time, she was waiting for him.
049. Auh in oyuhquimottili, ixpantzinco mopechtecac, motlalchitlaz, quimolhuili: As soon as he saw her, he prostrated himself before her, he threw himself to the ground, he said to her:
Form Challenge 049: Explain the term "ixpantzinco."
050. " Notecuiyoé, Tlacatlé, Cihuapillé, Noxocoyohué, Nochpochtziné! Ca onihuia in ompa otinechmotitlanili, ca oticneltilito in mi'iyotzin in motlatoltzin; macihuiin ohuihuitica in onicalac in ompa iyeyan in teopixcatlatoani, ca oniquittac, ca oixpannictlali in mi'iyotzin in motlatoltzin in yuh otinechmonanahuatili. "My dear Mistress, Lady Queen, my Youngest Child, my dear Beloved Maiden! I did go to where you sent me to carry our your dear breath, your dear word; although I entered with difficulty to where the place is of the Governing Priest, I saw him, I put your breath, your word, before him, as you ordered me to.
Form Challenge 050: In this passage, Juan Diego addresses the Virgin by a series of five honorifics difficult to translate gracefully. Perhaps the most puzzling is "noxocoyohué," since the same term was used in chapter 1 (lines 23, 26, 37) by the Virgin in addressing Juan Diego himself! For each of them, what would be the best English rendering and why is it appropriate as a term of address to the Virgin?
  1. Notecuiyoé (no = possessive + tëucuiö + é = vocative) = ??
    (Comment: Tëcuiö is an obsolete form from a different base used as the possessed form of tëuctli = master.)
  2. Tlacatlé (tlaca.tl = person, humane person + é = vocative) = ??
  3. Cihuapillé (cihuatl = woman + pilli = child/lord + é = vocative) =  ??
  4. Noxocoyohué (no = possessive + xocoyotl = youngest child + é =  ??vocative) =
    (Comment: Xocoyotl becomes xocoyouh when possessed, and the uh becomes hu before the added final vowel é)
  5. Nochpochtziné (no = possessive + Ichpochtli = daughter + tzin =  ??reverential + é = vocative) =
051. Onechpaccaceli, auh oquiyeccac;yece inic onechnanquili yuhquin amo iyollo omacic, amo monelchihua, He received me kindly and he listened to it perfectly, but from the way answered me, it's as if he didn't understand it, he doesn't think it's true.
052. Onechilhui: "Occeppa tihuallaz, oc ihuiyan nimitzcaquiz, huel oc itzinecan niquittaz in tlein otihualla, motlayelehuiliz, motlanequiliz". He said to me: "You will come again: I will still listen to you calmly, I will look well to what you have come for, from the very beginning, to your desire, your will.
053. Huel itech oniquittac in yuh onechnanquili ca momatti in moteocaltzin ticmonequiltia mitzmochihuililizque nican, azo zan nehuatl nicyoyocoya, acazomo motencopatzinco. The way he answered me, I could clearly see that he thinks your house that you want them to build for you here, maybe I'm only making it up, or that maybe it is not from your lips.
054. Ca cenca nimitznotlatlauthtilia Notecuiyoé, Cihuapillé, Nochpochtziné, manozo aca ceme in tlazopipiltin, in iximacho, in ixtilo, in mahuiztilo, itech xicmocahuili in quitquiz in quihuicaz in mi'iyotzin in motlatoltzin inic neltocoz. I beg you, my Lady, Queen, my Beloved Maiden, to have one of the nobles who are held in esteem, one who is known, respected, honored, (have him) carry, take your dear breath, your dear word, so that he will be believed.
055. Ca nel nicnotlapaltzintli, ca nimecapalli, ca nicacaxtli, ca nicuitlapilli, ca natlapalli, ca nitco ca nimamaloni, camo nonenemian, camo nonequetzayan in ompa tinechmihualia, Nochpochtziné, Noxocoyohué, Tlacatlé, Cihuapillé. Because I am really (just) a man from the country, I am a (porter's) rope I am a back-frame, a tail, a wing, a man of no importance: I myself need to be led, carried on someone's back, that place you are sending me to is a place where I'm not used to going to or spending any time in, my little Virgin, my Youngest Daughter, my Lady, Beloved Maiden.
056. Ma xinechmotiapopolhuili; nictequipachoz in mixtzin, in moyollotzin; ipan niaz, ipan nihuetziz in mozomatzin in mocualantzin, Tlacatlé, Notecuiyoé. " Please excuse me; I will grieve to your face, your heart; I will go into, fall into, your anger, into your displeasure, my Lady, my Mistress."
Juan Diego As a Shrine Souvenir Content Challenge 056: From the perspective of a dramatic narrative, does it make sense to include this scene of Juan Diego's despair and self-doubt and the Virgin's rather severe insistence that he, and only he, must carry out her wish? Why?

Picture shows mass-produced, plastic statues of Juan Diego for sale at the shrine in Tepeyac after he was canonized (sainted) by Pope John Paul II in 2003. He is holding open his cloak, or tilma, inside which the Virgin's picture has miraculously appeared, as we shall learn in the chapters to follow.
057. Quimonanquilili iz cenquizca Mahuizichpochtzintli: The Perfect Virgin, worthy of honor and veneration, answered him:
058. " Tlaxiccaqui noxocoyouh ma huel yuh ye in moyollo camo tlazotin in notetlayecolticahuan in notititlanhuan, in huel intech niccahuaz in quitquizque in ni'iyo in notlatol, in quineltilizque in notlanequiliz. "Listen, my youngest-and-dearest son, know for sure that I have no lack of servants, of messengers, to whom I can give the task of carrying my breath, my word, so that they carry out my will.
059. Yece huel yuh monequi inic huel tehuatl ic tinemiz ipan titlatoz, huel momatica neltiz mochihuaz, in nocializ, in notlanequiliz. But it is very necessary that you personally go and plead, that my wish, my will, become a reality, be carried out through your intercession.
060. Auh huel nimitztlatlauhtia noxocoyouh, ihuan nimitztlacuauhnahuatia ca huel occeppa tiaz in moztla tiquittatiuh in obispo. And I beg you, my youngest-and-dearest son, and I order you strictly to go again tomorrow to see the bishop.
Content Challenge 060: nimitztlatlauhtia "I beg you" comes from tlätlauhtia = to beg, implore. Nimitztlacuauhnahuatia = "I order you" comes from tlachuäuh = espcially + nahuatia = to order (pasted into a single word). So is she begging or ordering? Does Juan Diego have free will?
061. Auh nopampa xicnemachti, huel yuh xiccaquiti in nocializ, in notlanequiliz, inic quineltiliz inic quichihuaz noteocal niquitlanilia. And in my name make him know, make him hear my wish, my will, so that he will bring into being, he will build my house of God that I am asking him for.
Form Challenge 061: Explain all the parts of the expression "auh nopampa xicnemachti."
062. ihuan huel occeppa xiquilhui in quenin huel nehuatl nicemicac Ichpochtli Santa Maria in Ni'inantzin Teotl Dios in ompa nimitztitlani". and carefully tell him again how I, personally, the Ever Virgin Holy Mary, I, who am the Mother of God, am sending you."
Usage Note. The Expression "Ever Virgin" as a title for Mary reflects the Catholic doctrine that Mary had no offspring but Jesus and that he was without a human father. The "ever" is clumsy but conventional English in this expression. In Nahuatl, the adverb cemicac = perpetually was used. In this sentence, the Virgin appends the verbal prefix ni-. Ni- usually goes on a verb, but it may be affixed to a noun to mean "I am." This suggests that by the time this text was written the expression "ever-virgin" had effectively coalesced into a single expression, cemicac-ichpochtli, even though it was still, like "ever virgin," written as two words. Linguists refer to the fusing of longer expressions into single words as "lexicalization." This raises the curious problem of whether "nicemicac" should be capitalized or not.
063. Auh in Juan Diego quimonanquilili quimolhuili: " Notecuiyoé, Cihuapiilé, Nochpochtziné, macamo nictequipacho in mixtzin in moyollotzin, ca huel nocenyollocacopa nonyaz, noconneltilitiuh in mi'iyotzin in motlatoltzin ca niman amo nicnocacahualtia, manoce nictecococamatti in ohtli. For his part, Juan Diego responded to her and said to her "My Lady, Queen, my Beloved Maiden, let me not give you anguish, let me not grieve your face, your heart. I will most gladly go to carry out your breath, your word; I will absolutely not fail to do it, nor do I think the road is painful.
064. Ca nonyaz noconchihuatiuh in motlanequiliztzin, zan huel ye in azo camo niyeccacoz; in tlanoce ye onicacoc acazomo nineltocoz. I will go and carry out your will, but perhaps I won't be heard, and if I am heard, perhaps I won't be believed.
065. Ca tel moztla ye teotlac in ye oncalaqui tonatiuh niccuepaquiuh in mi'iyotzin in motlatoltzin in tlein ic nechnanquiliz in Teopixcatlatoani; Tomorrow afternoon, when the sun goes down, I will come to return to your word, to your breath, what the Governing Priest answers to me.
066. Ca ye nimitznotlalcahuilia, Noxocoyohué, Nochpochtziné, Tlacatlé, Cihuapillé, ma oc ximocehuitzino". Now, I respectfully say goodbye to you, my youngest Daughter, my Virgin, Lady, Maiden, rest a little more."
067. Auh niman ic ya in ichan mocehuito. And then he went to his house to rest.

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