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Part I: Esperanto Grammar

Chapter 17: Abbreviations

The following abbreviations are common in Esperanto writing and publishing. Some of them are found principally in want-ads seeking correspondents “on all topics” or “in all countries.”

A period is used immediately after an abbreviation, if at all, only when the abbreviation does not include the last letter of the abbreviated word. (Some common abbreviations, such as k, ktp, or ptm, also normally omit it.) Often a hyphen to represent the missing letters in the middle of a word.

Bv. saluti por mi s-ron Tan.
= Bonvolu saluti por mi sinjoron Tan.
= Please send Mr. Tan my greetings.

S-ano Ubotu atingis la UK-n je la 4-a atm!
= Samideano Ubotu got to the Worldwide Convention at four in the morning.


a.K. antaŭ Kristo BC/BCE
A.K.S. Akademio Internacia de Sciencoj International Academy of Sciences
atm antaŭtagmeze a.m.
bv. bonvolu please
C.O. Centra Oficejo Central Office (usually of the U.E.A.)
ĉ. ĉirkaŭ around
ĉ. ĉiuj, ĉio all
dez. kor. deziras korespondi wants to correspond
div. t. diversaj temoj various topics
d-ro doktoro Dr.
E. Esperanto Esperanto
ekz. ekzemple for example, e.g.
esp-ist(in)o esperantisto Esperanto speaker
ev. eventuale, eventuala in the end, possible
f-ino fraŭlino Miss
ges-anoj gesamideanoj fellow Esperantists
ges-roj gesinjoroj Mr. & Mrs.; ladies & gentlemen
gld. guldeno(j) Dutch guilder*
I.K.U. Internacia Kongresa Universitato International Convention University (portion of the annual U.K. given over to university-style lectures, usually on scientific subjects)
I.L. Internacia Lingvo international language (i.e., Esperanto)
inĝ. inĝeniero engineer (used as a title in many countries, like Mr.)
j. jaro year
k kaj and
k.a. kaj aliaj and others, et. al.
K.C.E. Kultura Centro Esperantista Esperanto Cultural Center (a language school in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland)
k.e.p. kiel eble plej as … as possible
k.e.p.b. kiel eble plej baldaŭ as soon as possible
k.s. kaj simile, kaj similaj and similarly, and similar (ones)
k.t.p. kaj tiel plu and so forth, etc.
L.I. Lingvo Internacia international language (i.e., Esperanto)
L.K. Landa Kongreso national convention
L.K.K. Loka Kongresa Komitato local convention committee
NRO Neregistra Organizo non-governmental organization
(associated with the United Nations)
p.K. post Kristo AD/CE
pm. poŝtmarko postage stamp
prof. profesoro professor
proks. proksimume approximately, ca.
ptm posttagmeze p.m.
rpk respondkupono International Reply Coupon**
red. redaktoro, redakcio editor, editorial office
s-ano samideano fellow Esperantist
s-ino sinjorino Mrs.
s-ro sinjoro Mr.
t.e. tio estas that is, i.e.
tm. tutmonde all over the world
TTT Tut-Tera Teksaĵo World Wide Web (WWW)
U.E.A. Universala Esperanto-Asocio Universal Esperanto Association
U.K. Universala Kongreso Worldwide Convention (of Esperanto)
UTK Universala Tempo Kunordigita UTC = Coordinated Universal Time (= GMT)***

Notes on the above list:

*-Because the Universal Esperanto Association is headquartered in the Netherlands, prices of books, subscriptions, etc. were formerly usually cited in guilder in Esperanto publications. Dutch guilder (singular: gulden) were also called florins in English, and the abbreviation “Hfl” interchanged with “NLG” in international banking circles. With the advent of the Euro (€) in 1999, UEA shifted its bookkeeping to that currency, and today prices are cited in Euros or, occasionally, dollars more or less standardly throughout the Esperanto-speaking world.

**-International Reply Coupons are sold in post offices around the world. Each coupon is good anywhere in the world for the price of a stamp back to the country in which the coupon was issued. These coupons make it possible to write to someone in another country and prepay the return postage, but during the Cold War they were used by Esperantists to settle small debts, so prices were occasionally quoted in them. Their use is quite expensive, and they have gradually fallen out of favor with the paying public, the more so with the growth of electronic mail, faxes, and other telecommunications services that are faster and cheaper means of international communication, and with the internationalization of credit cards (and in some countries small inter-bank or post-office cash transfers) as a way of making international purchases. Most Esperanto speakers today have probably never actually seen “rpk.”

***The rise of the Worldwide Web (TTT) offers the possibility of meetings and other events that span time zones. For such events the standard citation of time is therefore UTC (UTK), using 24-hour notation. Events scheduled between 12:00 o’clock (i.e., noon) and 18:00 o’clock UTC fall in the morning in the Americas, in the evening in Europe and Africa and late at night in Asia & Oceania.


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