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Chapter 8 Chapter 10

Egyptian Origins (9 Abridged)
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Naqada III Life (3200-3100 BC)

Political Consolidation. The increasing political complexity of life both in the Valley and in the Delta is even more accentuated in the Naqada III period. It seems to have been a period of intense warfare and competition, including attempts by some proto-states to assimilate others.

In the Delta, a the town of Pe, symbolized by a cobra, was apparently successfully gaining control over other towns and rapidly becoming the "capital" of Lower Egypt.

In the South, Nekhen was just as rapidly becoming the "capital" of Upper Egypt. Nekhen's symbol, the falcon, now turns up on artifacts over a wider and wider area, and it seems to have come to symbolize Upper Egypt generally rather than Nekhen alone. [Note 12]

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