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Content created: 031217, 2008-07-26
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Egyptian Origins

David K. Jordan

This material is available in full and abridged versions. To toggle between them, click on the "abridged" or "unabridged" link in any chapter. Four review quizzes are available based on the abridged version.


  1. Ancient Egypt (abridged)
  2. Predynastic Egypt (abridged)
  3. Neolithic Lower Egypt: Merimde (abridged)
  4. Neolithic Upper Egypt: Badari and Naqada (abridged)
  5. Badarian Neolithic Settlements of Upper Egypt (5000-4000 BC) (abridged)
  6. Naqada & Nekhen (abridged)
  7. Naqada I Settlements (4000-3500 BC (abridged)
  8. Early Naqada II Settlements (3500-3300 BC) (abridged)
  9. Naqada III Life (3200-3100 BC) (abridged)
  10. Egyptian Unification (abridged)
  11. The Mystery of Menes and the City of the White Wall (abridged)
  12. Crushing All Opposition (abridged)
  13. Myth and Politics: Heliopolis vs. Memphis (abridged)
  14. Inventing the Divine Pharaoh: Djoser and Imhotep (abridged)
  15. Conclusion (abridged)
  16. Review Quizzes: 1, 2, 3, 4
  17. Appendix: The Palette of Narmer

I am most grateful to many students and colleagues who have offered comments and corrections on this essay over the years, and especially to Shawn Bender, Nancy Friedlander, and the late Donald Tuzin for their thoughtful views and eagle-eyed proof-reading.

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