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Being Colloquial in Esperanto

A Reference Guide

Table of Contents

Preface (link)

Part I: Esperanto Grammar

1. Pronunciation (link)
2. Alternative Spellings (link)
3. Roots & Stems (link)
4 (Part 1). Nouns (link)
4.1. Nouns & Pronouns (link)
4.1.1. The Plural of Nouns (link)
4.1.2. Compound Nouns (link)
4.1.3. Word Order With Nouns (link)
4.1.4. Word Order With Personal Names (link)
4.1.5. Deleting -O in Poetry (link)
4.1.6. The Accusative Case. (link)
4.1.7. Personal Names (link)
4.1.8. Place Names (link)
4 (Part 2). Pronouns, Adjectives, & Adverbs (link)
4.2. Pronouns (link)
4.2.1. The Pronoun Ci. (link)
4.2.2. The Pronoun Oni. (link)
4.2.3. The Pronoun Si. (link)
4.3. Adjectives (link)
4.3.1. The Plural & Accusative of Adjectives (link)
4.4. Adverbs (link)
4.4.1. Adverbs of Place & Movement (Accusative Adverbs) (link)
4.5. Comparisons of Adjectives & Adverbs (link)
5. Prepositions (link)
6. Capitalization (link)
7. Questions (link)
8. The Article (link)
9. Numbers & Measurement. (link)
9.1. Numbers as Nouns (link)
9.2. Decimal Points (link)
9.3. Ordinal Numbers (link)
9.4. Arithmetic (link)
9.5. Fractions (link)
9.6. Time (link)
9.7. Monarchs (link)
9.8. Quantities of Things (link)
9.8.1. More about Da (link)
10. Correlatives (link)
10.1. Special Features of the Series in -O (link)
10.2. Special Features of the Series in K- (link)
10.3. The Particle Ĉi (link)
10.4. The Particle Ajn (link)
10.5. Special Features of Correlatives Ending in -OM (link)
10.5.1. Kioma = “Whichth” (link)
11. Forms in T-K and Ĉ-K: Overview (link)
11.1. Tio kio = what, whatever, that which (link)
11.2. Tiu kiu = (the) one who (link)
11.3. Tia kia = the kind (of …) that/who (link)
11.4. Tiel kiel = in whatever way, as … as (link)
11.5. Tiom kiom = as much as (link)
11.6. Tiam kiam = when(ever) (link)
11.7. Forms in Ĉ-K. (link)
11.8. Forms in T- + Ke/Ĉu (link)
11.8.1. Tio, ke/ĉu (link)
11.8.2. Other Correlatives + Ke to Show Result (link)
12. Verbs (link)
12.1. Four Moods of the Verb (link)
12.1.1. The As-Mood (Indicative Mood) (link)
12.1.2. The Us-Mood (Conditional Mood) (link)
12.1.3. The U-Mood (Imperative/Volitive Mood) (link)
12.1.4. The I-Mood (Infinitive Mood) (link)
12.2. Impersonal Verbs (“Weather Verbs”) (link)
12.3. Participles (link)
12.3.1. Participial Adverbs (Adverbial Participles) (link)
12.3.2. Participial Nouns (link)
12.3.3. The “Passive Voice” (link)
12.3.4. Tense & Aspect (Summary of Appendix) (link)
12.4. Transitivity & Intransitivity: Verbs in -ig- and -iĝ- (link)
12.4.1. Common Transitive Verbs (link)
12.4.2. Common Intransitive Verbs (link)
12.4.3. Verbs That Are Both Transitive & Intransitive (link)
12.4.4. Using -ig- and -iĝ- to Transform Verbs (link)
12.4.5. -ig- with Two Objects (link)
12.4.6. Verbs Made From Nouns and Adjectives With -ig- and -iĝ- (link)
12.4.7. Nouns and Adjectives With -ig- (link)
12.4.8. Nouns and Adjectives With -iĝ- (link)
12.4.9. Summary of -ig- and -iĝ- With Different Kinds of Roots (link)
12.4.10. Igi and Iĝi As Independent Verbs (link)
13. Affixes (Prefixes & Suffixes) (link)
13.1. Prefixes (link)
13.2. Suffixes (link)
13.3. Affixes as Roots (link)
13.4. Pseudo-affixes (link)
13.5. Prepositions & Other Roots as Affixes (link)
14. Reduplication (link)
15. Writing Letters (link)
16. Speed of Speech (link)
17. Abbreviations (link)
18. Verbal Play (link)

Part II: Potentially Troublesome Words (link)

Appendix on Participles (link)

Participles: The Brief Story (link)
Participles: The Full Story (And the Famous “Ata/Ita” Problem) (link)


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