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The Collapse of the Míng Dynasty

This page is intended to provide a very brief overview of events in the transition from the Míng to the Qīng dynasties. Aside from its broader importance for Chinese history, this was a period of special relevance to the history of Taiwan, even though most of the story told here was played out on the mainland. For a more detailed chronology of Taiwan itself, less detailed than this page for the mainland developments, click here.

The sources are countless reference books, the most useful of which are listed at the end.

Click here for geeky note about English usage.

Chapters

  1. The Scene Opens
  2. Palace Intrigue Among the Concubines
  3. Jurchens on the Move
  4. Changes at the Top
  5. The Jurchens Become Manchus
  6. Moving on Běijīng
  7. Běijīng Falls Once
  8. Běijīng Falls Again
  9. The Southern Míng (Nánmíng) Dynasty
  10. Enter Koxinga
  11. Meanwhile the Dutch Are Annoying People in Táiwān
  12. Táiwān as Capital of the Southern Míng Dynasty
  13. Sources

1. The Scene Opens

Dramatis Personae

Lóngqìng 隆庆 / 隆慶 = a dead emperor (reign name)

Wànlì 万历 / 萬曆 = his son and successor (reign name)

Nurhaci (Nǔ’ěrhāchì 努尔哈赤 / 努爾哈赤) = a Jurchen leader (khan)

1573
In China, the Lóngqìng 隆庆 / 隆慶 emperor of the Míng dynasty (1368-1644) is succeeded by his senior surviving son, the Wànlì 万历 / 萬曆 emperor. During the Wànlì reign of nearly half a century the economy generates prosperity and wealth not to be seen again for nearly five hundred years, and it is an age of artistic and literary brilliance. All this is no-thanks to the emperor himself, however, who has little interest in government. Historians normally date the beginning of the deterioration of the dynasty to the Wànlì period.
1583 map
To the northeast of China, Nurhaci (Nǔ’ěrhāchì 努尔哈赤 / 努爾哈赤) (1559-1626) becomes leader (khan) of the southeastern-most group of Jurchen (or Jürchen, Chinese: Nǚzhēn 女真) people.
(Jurchens were herding tribes in northeastern China, specifically in Manchuria, the region northeast of the Great Wall. Jurchens, a subgroup of Tartars (Dádá 鞑靼 / 韃靼), spoke Eastern Turkic languages related to Mongolian. In general, the center of operations for Nurhaci was the region of modern Liáoníng 辽宁 / 遼寧 Province (adjacent to North Korea), just to the south of his homeland in what is today Jílín 吉林 Province. Especially important was the Liáodōng 辽东 / 遼東 peninsula, which extends south and divides the Bóhǎi 渤海 Sea to the west from the Yellow Sea to the right.)
1616
Nurhaci renounces his treaty with China and declares the establishment of the "Later Jīn" 后金 / 後金 dynasty, headed by himself.
1619
Nurhaci’s forces inflict a massive defeat the Míng armies at Sà'ěrhǔ 萨尔浒 / 薩爾滸, giving him control of the Liáodōng 辽东 / 遼東 peninsula as the Jurchens sweep across what is today Liáoníng 辽宁 / 遼寧 province.
(Běijīng 北京, the Míng capital after 1409, was very near the front line, marked by the Great Wall, so despite Míng improvements to the wall —it is the Míng structure that tourists visit today— the Míng situation was becoming ever more tenuous.)

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2. Palace Intrigue Among the Concubines

Dramatis Personae

Tàichāng 泰昌 = an emperor (reign name), son of the Wànlì emperor

Concubine Wáng = his mother.

Concubine Zhèng  /  = her rival, possibly the murderer of the Tàichāng emperor.

Tiānqǐ 天启 / 天啟 = an emperor (reign name), Sixteen-year-old successor and younger brother of the Tàichāng emperor; a bit dim.

Wèi Zhōngxián 魏忠贤 / 魏忠賢 = his influential tutor, a fabulously corrupt eunuch

1620
Following his father’s death, the Wànlì emperor’s eldest son by Concubine Wáng (d. 1613) accedes to the throne as the Tàichāng 泰昌 emperor. The Tàichāng emperor reigns only five weeks, then mysteriously falls ill and dies, possibly poisoned by Concubine Wáng’s rival Concubine Zhèng  /  (d. 1630).
The Tàichāng emperor’s mentally unstable eldest son is enthroned as the Tiānqǐ 天启 / 天啟 emperor at the age of 16. Actual power falls to Eunuch Wèi Zhōngxián 魏忠贤 / 魏忠賢 (1568-1627), who assumes the role of the emperor’s regent.
One of the most powerful (and corrupt) eunuchs in Chinese history, Eunuch Wèi intimidates the timid Tiānqǐ emperor and, by using a network of spies and freely killing off opponents, runs the court as he pleases, generating enormous resentment. (Click here for outrageous palace scandal.)

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3. Jurchens on the Move

Dramatis Personae

Nurhaci (Nǔ’ěrhāchì 努尔哈赤 / 努爾哈赤) = a Jurchen leader (khan)

General Yuán Chónghuàn 袁崇焕 / 袁崇煥 = a loyal and effective but brutal general

Wèi Zhōngxián 魏忠贤 / 魏忠賢 = an influential and fabulously corrupt eunuch

1621
The Jurchen khan Nurhaci (1559-1626) seizes Mukden (modern Shěnyáng 沈阳 / 瀋陽 in Liáoníng Province) and other key cities in northeastern China.
1622
The Míng general Yuán Chónghuàn 袁崇焕 / 袁崇煥 temporarily halts Jurchen encroachment in lands claimed by China.
1623
Chinese rebels in the Liáodōng peninsula rebel against Khan Nurhaci’s governance of them. After lots of people die, the uprising is suppressed.
1624
Eunuch Wèi Zhōngxián orders the deaths of about 200 senior government figures for plotting against him.
1625
Khan Nurhaci suppresses a second Chinese uprising on the Liáodōng peninsula. General Yuán Chónghuàn again attacks Jurchen forces.

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4. Leadership Changes

Dramatis Personae

Nurhaci (Nǔ’ěrhāchì 努尔哈赤 / 努爾哈赤) = a Jurchen leader (khan), now dead

Huáng Tàijí 皇太极 / 皇太極 (Abahai in Manchu) = his eighth son and successor (after some contention)

Wèi Zhōngxián 魏忠贤 / 魏忠賢 = a fabulously corrupt eunuch, the real ruler of China until he is forced to commit suicide

Tiānqǐ 天启 / 天啟 = a very weak emperor (reign name)

Chóngzhēn 崇祯 / 崇禎 = his brother and successor, also a weak emperor (reign name)

General Yuán Chónghuàn 袁崇焕 / 袁崇煥 = a loyal and effective but brutal general

1626
In the north, Nurhaci dies, producing a power struggle between his sons and nephews. His eighth son, Huáng Tàijí 皇太极 / 皇太極 (Abahai in Manchu) (1592-1643), emerges victorious as the new khan. Khan Huáng (who thinks China is pretty cool) reorganizes the Jurchen tribes under his control into a Chinese style imperial court. By pursuing a conciliatory policy toward his Chinese subjects, he encourages defectors from the corrupt Míng regime of Eunuch Wèi and Wèi’s pathetic captive, the Tiānqǐ emperor.
1627
The pathetic Tiānqǐ emperor dies and is succeeded by his largely unimpressive younger brother, the Chóngzhēn 崇祯 / 崇禎 emperor (reigned 1627-1643). Eunuch Wèi’s enemies succeed in having him seized on charges of corruption, Eunuch Wèi is forced to commit suicide.
Meanwhile, tens of thousands of northern Chinese die of famine. Across China, bandit groups form, blaming the emperor for the famine. General Yuán Chónghuàn 袁崇焕 / 袁崇煥 is given command of all of the empire’s northeastern armies, who appaarently loath him (and probably tend to sympathize with the bandits).
1629
Although successful against the Jurchens, General Yuán Chónghuàn 袁崇焕 / 袁崇煥, now rather full of himself, alienates his senior officers by summarily executing a fellow general in a fit of envy.
1630
When a Jurchen army reaches the outskirts of Běijīng 北京, General Yuán is accused of forming an alliance with their head, Khan Huáng Tàijí 皇太极 / 皇太極, so Chinese forces use the opportunity to chop General Yuán’s body to pieces in a city marketplace.

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5. The Jurchens Become Manchus

Dramatis Personae

Huáng Tàijí 皇太极 / 皇太極 (Abahai in Manchu) = a Jurchen khan who decides they should be called Manchu instead of Jurchens and he should be called an empeeror instead of a khan

Chóngzhēn 崇祯 / 崇禎 = a weak emperor (reign name)

1635
On October 20 Jurchen tribesmen under Khan Huáng’s control select the word “Manchu” (Mǎnzhōu 满洲 / 滿洲), the name of an earlier Jurchen hero and his descendents, as a self-identifying “ethnic” label for themselves. (The name is applied only to Huáng’s Jurchens, formerly known as Jiànzhōu 建州 Jurchens. Other Jurchens remain Jurchens.) (Click here for more about the curious word "Manchu.")
Khan Huáng Tàijí increases his manpower and resources by invading Mongolia, where the tribes are too sparse and disorganized to resist him. Mongol leaders readily enough renounce their allegiance to the Míng dynasty and eight Mongol “banners” (fighting units) are added to the Jurchen army. (Calling fighting units “banners” is a Jurchen thing.)
Widespread rebellion plunges much of China into chaos. Mobs loot the mausoleums of the Míng royal family near Běijīng (the same ones tourists like to visit today). The Chóngzhēn emperor, not very impressive even in the best of times, puts on mourning clothes to show his ancestors that the sacking of their tombs made him sad, and then he shows he is clearly in charge by ordering the execution of the tombs’ guardian eunuch. That doesn’t help morale very much and does nothing about the famine or the rebellions.
An imperial fleet operating from bases on the Shāndōng 山东 / 山東 peninsula launches surprisingly effective raids against Manchu coastal stations along the Liáodōng coast.
1636
Khan Huáng, now calling himself emperor instead of khan, declares the founding of the Qīng (“Pure”) dynasty. Since he is in the northeast anyway, he imposes vassal status on Korea, which has been suffering its own problems and is in a poor position to resist. (Korea’s status of a vassal state of China will continue until the treaty of Simonoseki in 1895). Raiding the lower Yellow River basin, Huáng is able to add two Chinese “banners” to his troops. (Nobody really likes the Manchus, but the Míng government is clearly made up of real losers at this point. And besides, there is that famine problem.)

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6. Moving on Běijīng

Dramatis Personae

General Wú Sānguì 吴三桂 / 吳三桂 = a general charged with holding the pass where the Great Wall meets the sea

Lǐ Zìchéng 李自成 = a frighteningly talented rebel leader

General Dorgon (Duō’ěrgǔn 多尔衮 / 多爾袞) = a Manchu general

engraving
Shānhǎiguān: Where the Great Wall Meets the Sea
(E.C. Phillips 1882)
1642
After ten years of repeated assaults, the city of Jǐnzhōu 锦州 / 錦州, in Liáoníng Province, falls to Manchu forces. Běijīng is now guarded by the Shānhǎiguān 山海关 / 山海關 Pass, still held by a loyalist general named Wú Sānguì 吴三桂 / 吳三桂. This pass (or gate) is the point where the Great Wall meets the sea, the only passage between Manchuria and China. As General Wú faces Manchu troops marching from the north, to the south there are floods and famines and an ever growing, if fragmented, peasant rebellion.
Lǐ Zìchéng 李自成, a frighteningly talented ironworker from Shaǎnxī 陝西 Province, emerges as a major rebel leader, uniting malcontents into an increasingly threatening military power.
1644
A Manchu general named Dorgon (Duō’ěrgǔn 多尔衮 / 多爾袞) (1612-1650), the 14th son of Nurhaci, is in charge of invading Běijīng and is eager to do so. But he believes he can get Míng troops to desert to the Qīng side first, thereby reducing bloodshed, and more importantly adding to his army.

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7. Běijīng Falls Once

Dramatis Personae

Lǐ Zìchéng 李自成 = a frighteningly talented rebel leader

Chóngzhēn 崇祯 / 崇禎 = a weak emperor, unkind to harem women (reign name)

1644
Meanwhile farther to the south rebel leader Lǐ Zìchéng 李自成 marches across the northern plains toward Běijīng. While he advances, his army keeps growing as more peasants join. In April, he enters Běijīng without opposition.
The Chóngzhēn Emperor, very drunk, orders his palace women to kill themselves. Some obey, others do not. The emperor, furious, hacks off the arms of one of his daughters, disembowels another, and sets out to slay his remaining concubines. At dawn, attended by his one remaining loyal (and stupid) eunuch, Chóngzhēn hangs himself from a locust tree behind the palace.
Rebel leader Lǐ, fearing that General Wú Sānguì will attack his newly captured city of Běijīng, orders the breaching of Yellow River dikes at the ancient city of Kāifēng 开封 / 開封 (in Hénán 河南 Province), then marches toward the Shānhǎiguān Pass from the south, hoping to dispose of Wú before Wú disposes of him.

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8. Běijīng Falls Again

Dramatis Personae

General Wú Sānguì 吴三桂 / 吳三桂 = a general charged with holding the pass where the Great Wall meets the sea; as chaos descends he decided to open the pass.

Lǐ Zìchéng 李自成 = a frighteningly talented rebel leader, inclined to bloodthirstiness

General Dorgon (Duō’ěrgǔn 多尔衮 / 多爾袞) = a Manchu general

Shùnzhì 顺治 / 順治 = the first Manchu emperor (reign name), a Manchu child khan placed on the throne by General Dorgon

1644
Without an emperor to defend, General Wú Sānguì ponders whether to side with Rebel Lǐ Zìchéng against the Manchu monster Dorgon, or with Manchu Dorgon against the rebel monster Lǐ. In the end, he decides to support Dorgon.(According to legend, he never liked Lǐ very well after Lǐ stole his favorite concubine.) General Wú therefore negotiates terms of surrender, opens the Pass he is supposed to be defending, and marches his remaining troops toward Běijīng to help wipe out Rebel Lǐ. (Additional note.)
Seriously annoyed, Rebel Lǐ seizes and beheads General Wú’s father and on June 3 declares himself emperor. Meanwhile, the Manchu leader Dorgon passes freely through the Great Wall and, joining forces with General Wú, captures and enters Běijīng on June 6. Rebel Lǐ, still calling himself emperor, flees southward.
Once in Běijīng, Dorgon enthrones the Manchu boy-khan Fúlín 福临 / 福臨 as the Shùnzhì 顺治 / 順治 emperor (reigned 1644-1661), with Dorgon himself as “Imperial Regent Uncle” (Huángshúfù Shèzhèngwáng 皇叔父摄政王 / 皇叔父攝政王), and proclaims founding of the Qīng dynasty (again). As a security measure, all Chinese are banned from the Forbidden City compound in Běijīng, and all Chinese men are required to show their submission to the new régime by wearing their hair in a queue, on pain of death for treason.

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9. The Southern Míng (Nánmíng 南明) Dynasty

Dramatis Personae

Prince Fú 福王 = a grandson of the Wànlì emperor and pretender to the lost Míng throne, reigning at Nánjīng 南京 1644-1645 using the reign name Hóngguāng 弘光; executed in 1646.

Zhèng Zhīlóng 郑芝龙 / 鄭芝龍 = Fújìan province warlord, a Míng loyalist (until he is not)

Prince Guì 桂王 = brother and successor-pretender of Prince Fú, with the reign name Lóngwǔ 隆武.

1644
Meanwhile in Nánjīng 南京, Prince Fú (Fú wáng 福王), a grandson of the Wànlì emperor, hopes to restore the dynasty with himself on the throne. (Remember the Wànlì emperor? He was the one whose concubine killed his successor to set her own wimpy kid on the throne.) Prince Fú sets up a successor Míng government, the so-called “Southern Míng dynasty” or Nánmíng Cháo 南明朝, declaring himself to be the Hóngguāng 弘光 emperor. (He figures in at least one very famous Chinese opera, The Peach Blossom Fan [Táohuā Shàn 桃花扇]. A summary of the tale is part of the collection of Chinese opera stories on this web site. Link)
In Fújiàn福建 Province, the coastal pirate, local warlord, and general man-about-town Zhèng Zhīlóng 郑芝龙 / 鄭芝龍 pledges his allegiance to Prince Fú. (Zhèng’s views of the situation and his motivations for this alliance, which he later abandons, are good fodder for your next novel.)
In May, Qīng forces take the Míng loyalist city of Yángzhōu 杨州 / 楊州, in Jiāngsū 江苏 / 江蘇 Province (just north of the Yangtze River), and slaughter all inhabitants to show them who is boss. Prince Fú, fearing a similar fate for Nánjīng (upstream on the river). (He will surrender and be executed in Běijīng the next year.)
Meanwhile, Prince Fú’s brother, Prince Táng 唐王, claims the Southern Míng throne at the city of Zhàoqìng 肇庆 / 肇慶 in Guǎngdōng 广东 / 廣東 province in the far south and establishes himself as the Lóngwǔ 隆武 emperor of the Southern Míng dynasty.

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10. Enter Koxinga (Guóxìngyé 国姓爷)

Dramatis Personae

Zhèng Zhīlóng 郑芝龙 / 鄭芝龍 = Fújìan province warlord, a Míng loyalist (until he is not)

Zhèng Sēn 郑森 / 鄭森 = his impressive son, later known as Zhèng Chénggōng 郑成功 / 鄭成功

Prince Fú 福王 = a grandson of the Wànlì emperor and pretender to the lost Míng throne, reigning at Nánjīng 南京 1644-1645 using the reign name Hóngguāng 弘光; executed in 1646.

Prince Táng 唐王 = competitor to Hóngguāng emperor as the pretender to the Míng throne; reigned in south coastal China from late July of 1644 to September of 1646. with the reign name Lóngwǔ 隆武 ()

Prince Guì 桂王 = grandson of wannlih emperor and successor to Prince Táng; reigned Nov 1646 to June 1662 under the reign name Yǒnglì 永历 / 永曆. (Constantly on the run, he will eventually be captured in Burma and strangled in 1662. That is 18 years later. He was good at running.)

1645
First and only year of the Hóngguāng 弘光 reign year of Prince Fú (Fú wáng 福王) of the Nánmíng dynasty.
Prince Fú’s supporter, Zhèng Zhīlóng 郑芝龙 / 鄭芝龍, has a son by a wife (Tagawa Matsu 田川マツ) whom he met in Japan. Their son is named Zhèng Sēn 郑森 / 鄭森 (1624-1662), and he is a startlingly brilliant student and generally very impressive person. At 21, still a student, he is presented to the Hóngguāng emperor, Prince Fú.
Prince Fú immediately confers the Míng royal surname (Zhū ) on Zhèng Sēn, who is thereafter called “the Lord with the royal name” or Guóxìngyé 国姓爷 / 國姓爺, although he in fact continues to use the surname Zhèng. (Guóxìngyé is spelled “Koxinga” is standard in English, based on the Hokkien pronunciation Kok-sèng-yâ.)
The emperor also has him change his personal name from Sēn to Chénggōng 成功, or “Success,” so historians know him as Zhèng Chénggōng 郑成功 / 鄭成功. (Today even very impressive 21-year-olds are lucky to get a job flipping burgers. Was Prince Fú desperate? Deceived? Love-struck? Or was Koxinga in a class with Mozart or Einstein or Huà Tuō 华佗 / 華佗? What was going on? This is more fodder for your novel.)
With Prince Fú's defeat, Zhèng's forces are forced southward, effectively confined to areas ever farther south of the Yangtse.
1646
First year of the Lóngwǔ 隆武 reign of 桂王 the Southern Míng dynasty.
1647
Zhèng Chénggōng (Koxinga), Zhèng Zhīlóng’s son, abandons school and leads troops into battle against the Qīng forces.
Zhèng Zhīlóng is forced (or mandaciously persuaded) to surrender to Qīng forces, despite protestations from his wife and son. He will be executed in 1661 because of his son's continued loyalty to the Míng cause. (More for your novel.)
1648
First year of the Yǒnglì 永历 / 永曆 reign of Prince Guì the Southern Míng dynasty. (No further reign names are recorded for the Southern Míng dynasty. But hopes of Míng revival will continue in Táiwān, fuelling a long succession of rebellions.)

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11. Meanwhile the Dutch Are Annoying People in Táiwān

Dramatis Personae

Guō Huáiyī 郭怀一 / 郭懷一 = an anti-Dutch rebel leader in Taiwan

Zhèng Chénggōng 郑成功 / 鄭成功 = Míng loyalist general increasingly centered in Táiwān 台湾 / 臺灣 (the former Zhèng Sēn 郑森 / 鄭森)

Zhāng Huángyán 张煌言 / 張煌言 = Míng loyalist warlord in the lower Yangtze region

Shùnzhì 顺治 / 順治 = the first Manchu emperor (reign name), dead of smallpox at age 23

Kāngxī 康熙 = his successor, age 7 (reign name)

Oboi (Áobài 鳌拜 / 鼇拜) = villainous regent for the young Kāngxī emperor

1652
In Táiwān, a rebellion against the Dutch occupation of Táiwān 台湾 / 臺灣 is led by Guō Huáiyī 郭怀一 / 郭懷一 and fails. About 4,000 rebels are massacred and more than 1,000 are taken prisoner.
1659
Zhèng Chénggōng, still on the mainland, allies himself with the Míng loyalist Zhāng Huángyán 张煌言 / 張煌言 in a Yangtze delta campaign (near modern Shànghǎi 上海) and is defeated. (Zhāng is an alienated scholar who has always hated the Míng régime, but remains loyal to the old régime because Confucius says loyalty is good. He is not really very happy among rag-tag rebels, which is pretty much all the Míng loyalists are at this point, and that strikes also him as un-Confucian. Rebellions are complicated.)
1660
On the death of a favorite concubine, the 22-year-old Shùnzhì emperor, depressed even though he is the first emperor of the Qīng dynasty, proposes to commit suicide, causing courtiers to worry that he is coming unhinged.
1661
Not having committed suicide the previous year, the Shùnzhì emperor dies of smallpox at the age of 23 and his third son becomes the Kāngxī emperor (reigned 1662-1722) at the age of 7, under the tutelage of four regents, dominated by the warlord Áobài 鳌拜 / 鼇拜 (better known in English by his Manchu name, Oboi).

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12. Táiwān as Capital of the Southern Míng Dynasty

Dramatis Personae

Oboi (Áobài 鳌拜 / 鼇拜) = villainous regent for the young Kāngxī emperor

Zhèng Chénggōng 郑成功 / 鄭成功 = Ruler of Táiwān, still claiming to loyalty to the fallen Míng dynasty

Zhèng Jīng 郑经 / 鄭經 = his son and successor

Zhèng Kèshuǎng 郑克塽 / 鄭克塽 = grandson of Zhèng Chénggōng

photo
Memorial in Xiàmén to Koxinga, Scourge of the Dutch
(P. W. Pitcher 1912)
1661
Zhèng Chénggōng 郑成功 / 鄭成功 siezes the Pénghú 澎湖 archipelago in the Taiwan Strait and then secretly lands in Lù’ěrmén 鹿耳门 / 鹿耳門, in Táinán, enabling him to launch an attack on the less fortified land side of the Dutch fortifications there. The seige of the Dutch fortifications will take nearly a year.
Zhèng declares Táiwān the Eastern Capital (Dōngdū 东都 / 東都) of the Míng Government and establishes two xiàn  /  (“counties”). He establishes an administrative office in the old Dutch Fort Providentia. (Click me.)
Angered by coastal activities by Japanese, Dutch, and Chinese pirates, the imperial regent Oboi decrees (on behalf of the child emperor) an evacuation of the southeastern coast of Fújiàn and especially Guǎngdōng provinces to a distance of 20 miles inland, referred to as the Coastal Evacuation Order (Qiānhǎilìng 迁海令 / 遷海令). (One result is to produce massive, if illegal, migration to Táiwān and southeast Asia.) The decree will be lifted on Oboi’s overthrow in 1669.
1662
The Dutch surrender Táiwān to Zhèng Chénggōng, ending 38 years of occupation. (Click me.)
Zhèng Chénggōng dies of illness at the age of 37 and is succeeded by his son Zhèng Jīng 郑经 / 鄭經.
1673-1681
The Three Feudatories Rebellion (Sānfān zhī Luàn 三藩之亂) breaks out in China. (Details.) Zhèng Jīng 郑经 / 鄭經 assists the rebellion.
1683
Taiwanese leader Zhèng Kèshuǎng 鄭克塽, grandson of Zhèng Chénggōng 鄭成功 surrenders. Having successfully vanquished the Táiwān rebel regime, General Shī Láng 施琅 proposes to sell the island back to the Dutch. The emperor overrules him.

This page expands on events in Chinese history relevant to the history of Taiwan. For a more detailed chronology of Taiwan, but with less detail than this page for the mainland developments, click here.


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Sources:

ÁNG Mànzhēn 唐慢珍 & WÁNG Yǔ 王宇 (eds.)
1990 台湾事典. (The book of Taiwan). Tiānjīn: 南开大学出版社.
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Picture sources:

PHILLIPS, E. C.
1882 Peeps into China: or the missionary’s children. London: Cassell. (Great wall, p. 25.)
PITCHER, Philip Wilson
1912 In and about Amoy: some historical and other facts connected with one of the first open ports of China. Shanghai: The Methodist Publishing House in China. (Koxinga memorial arch, p. 248.)

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