Foundational readings

Clark, H. H., Schreuder, R., & Buttrick, S. (1983). Common ground at the understanding of demonstrative reference. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22(2), 245–258

Hirschberg, J. L. B. (1985). A theory of scalar implicature (PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania)

Horn, L. R. (1984). Toward a new taxonomy for pragmatic inference: Q-based and R-based implicature. In D. Schiffrin (Ed.), Meaning, form, and use in context: linguistic applications (pp. 11–42). Washington: Georgetown University Press

Schelling, T. C. (1960). The strategy of conflict (First). Harvard University Press

Sperber, D. & Wilson, D. (1986). Relevance: communication and cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press


Warglien, M. & Gärdenfors, P. (2013, June). Semantics, conceptual spaces, and the meeting of minds. Synthese, 190(12), 2165–2193

Pragmatics in Artificial Intelligence

Appelt, D. E. (1985). Planning English referring expressions. Artificial Intelligence, 26(1), 1–33

Interface with syntax & semantics

Davidson, K. (2013). ‘And’ or ‘or’: general use coordination in ASL. Semantics and Pragmatics, 6(4), 1–44

Levy, R., Bergen, L., & Goodman, N. D. (2014). Roses and flowers: an informativeness implicature in probabilistic pragmatics. To appear in the Proceedings of the 24th Conference on Semantics and Linguistic Theory

Levy, R. & Potts, C. (2015). Communicating in language, and about language, using disjunction. To be presented at the 89th Annual Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America, 8–11 January 2015, Portland, Oregon

Psychological plausibility

Camerer, C. F., Ho, T.-H., & Chong, J.-K. (2004). A cognitive hierarchy model of games. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 861–898

Grammaticalized Implicature

Chemla, E. & Spector, B. (2011). Experimental evidence for embedded scalar implicatures. Journal of Semantics, 28, 359–400

Chierchia, G. et al. (2004). Scalar implicatures, polarity phenomena, and the syntax/pragmatics interface. Structures and beyond, 3, 39–103

Chierchia, G., Fox, D., & Spector, B. (2012). Scalar implicature as a grammatical phenomenon. In K. von Heusinger, C. Maienborn, & P. Portner (Eds.), Semantics: an international handbook of natural language meaning (Chap. 87, Vol. 3). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter

Russell, B. (2006). Against grammatical computation of scalar implicatures. Journal of Semantics, 23(4), 361–382

Russell, B. (2012). Probabilistic reasoning and the computation of scalar implicatures (PhD thesis, Brown University)

Experimental approaches

Degen, J. & Tanenhaus, M. K. (2014). Scalar implicature processing: a constraint-based approach. Cognitive Science

Chemla, E. & Spector, B. (2011). Experimental evidence for embedded scalar implicatures. Journal of Semantics, 28, 359–400

Gibbs Jr, R. W. & Moise, J. F. (1997). Pragmatics in understanding what is said. Cognition, 62(1), 51–74

Game-theoretic models

Blutner, R. (1998). Lexical pragmatics. Journal of Semantics, 15(2), 115–162

Blutner, R. (2000). Some aspects of optimality in natural language interpretation. Journal of Semantics, 17(3), 189–216


Franke, M. (2008). Interpretation of optimal signals. In R. A. Krzysztof & R. van Rooij (Eds.), New perspectives on games and interaction (Vol. 4, pp. 297–310). Texts in Logic and Games. Amsterdam University Press

Franke, M. (2011). Quantity implicatures, exhaustive interpretation, and rational conversation. Semantics and Pragmatics, 4, 1–1

Degen, J. & Franke, M. (2012). Optimal reasoning about referential expressions. In S. Brown-Schmidt, J. Ginzburg, & S. Larsson (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th workshop on the semantics and pragmatics of dialogue (pp. 2–11)

Qing, C. & Franke, M. (2013). Variations on a Bayesian theme: comparing Bayesian models of referential reasoning. In H. Zeevat & H.-C. Schmitz (Eds.), Proceedings of the workshop on Bayesian natural language semantics and pragmatics (Vol. 13)

Connections with language learning

Smith, N. J., Goodman, N., & Frank, M. (2013). Learning and using language via recursive pragmatic reasoning about other agents. In C. Burges, L. Bottou, M. Welling, Z. Ghahramani, & K. Weinberger (Eds.), Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26 (pp. 3039–3047). Retrieved from