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The Death of Quetzalcöätl

Anales de Cuauhtitlan
(Codex Chimalpopoca, sections 5 to 8)

Quetzalcoatl in His Finery as Lord of the Wind, Ehecatl
(Codex Magliabecchi)

The Story. This is one variant of the story of a ruler named Quetzalcöätl ("Quetzal-bird Serpent," usually rendered "Feathered Serpent"), believed by the Aztecs to have reigned over the extinct Toltec capital town of Tula several hundred years earlier. It was common for ancient Mexicans to be named by their dates of birth, and Quetzalcöätl was also called Cë-Acatl, or "One Reed," the name of the day of his birth. He is also referred to as Topiltzin Quetzalcöätl ("Our Beloved Lord Quetzalcöätl").

Inevitably he is easily confused with the god Quetzalcöätl, after whom he presumably was named, and it seems likely that most Aztecs suffered from the confusion. It is provocative to imagine that Quetzalcöätl the man may also have suffered from this confusion.

The Source. The present account is included in the Anales de Cuauhtitlan and dates to about 1570. (The Anales, combined with another manuscript called the Leyenda de los Soles and dated about 1558, both occur in the same manuscript, known as the Codex Chimalpopoca.)

The modernized spelling used here is based on Michel Launey's Introduction à la Langue et à la Litterature Aztèques (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1981, vol. 2, pp. 192-203), and it is Launey's numbering that is followed.

The English rendering is my own, although informed at many points by Launey's French rendering, and retouched occasionally by reference to John Bierhorst's scholarly treatment of the original text (Codex Chimalpopoca: The Text in Nahuatl with a Glossary and Grammatical Notes. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1992). I have tried to keep the English intelligibly close to the Nahuatl. Given the liberties I have taken with the text in adjusting it to the present need, I have unquestionably introduced distortions and mistakes.

The Present Text This text makes extensive use of "intentional suffixes," which can be found in a table in the Inadequate Nahuatl Grammar (= p. 11 of Nahuatl Grammar Notes), and you will also find auxiliary suffixes and causatives described in the preceding section for the grammar. There are also "reverential" verbs here: a causative or applicative ending is added to a verb but is negated by a reflexive suffix, so that the meaning does not change, but the verb gets longer, a device considered elegant and very heavily used in polite speech and some texts. For the first few lines the original spelling is added (in green), following Birehorst, to show what the original text is like.

Challenges The "challenges" in this text are in two colors. The strictly linguistic ones are "form challenges" and are colored red. The interpretive ones are "content challenges" and are colored blue. Depending upon your interests, you may prefer to pay more attention to one set than to the other.

[Quetzalcöätl's mother was named Chimalman, a name perhaps related to chïmalli "war shield," and he was born in the year One Reed (A.D. 843) after she swallowed a piece of jade one day. He appears to have been much given to religious fasting, and was made king and priest of the Toltecs when a vacancy occurred on the throne in the year Five House (AD 873). The text describes his elegant dwelling of precious stones and colorful feathers in which he carried out his devotions, protected from public contact by his servants. It tells us that he angered other "sorcerers" because he refused to sacrifice human beings, substituting snakes, birds, and even butterflies. As our story begins, these "sorcerers," fed up with him, conspire to mock and harass him until he runs away so they can select a new monarch.]

1-A. I äcatl. In ïpan inïn xihuitl in mic Quetzalcöätl.
1 acatl yn ipan in xihuitl yn mic quetzalcoatl
One reed. That was the year (A.D. 895) when Quetzalcöätl died.
in ïpan = when, in the time of
äctl = reed
inïn = this
xihuitl = year
miqui Vi2 = to die
1-B. Auh mihtoa zan yah in Tlïllän Tlapallän in ic ömpa miquiz.
auh mitoa çan ya yn tlillan tlapallan ynic ompa miquito
It is said that he want to Tlïllän Tlapallän in order to die there.
ihtoa Vt3 = to speak
tlïlli = soot, blank ink
tlapalli = dye, ink (implies red?); used as e euphemism for blood
Tlïllän Tlapallän = The Black Lands and Red Lands (where the sun rises)
yäuh Vi = to go (preterit: yah) = to go
in ïc = in order to
miqui Vi2 = to die
ömpa = there
1-C. Niman ommotlahtohcätlälih in Töllan tlahtohcät ïtöcä Mahtläcxöchitl.
niman onmotlàtocatlalli yn tollan tlàtocat ytoca Matlacxochitl
And afterwards at Tula there was enthroned, there became king someone named Mahtläcxöchitl ("ten flowers").
niman = then, immediately
tlahtohqui = ruler (literally, speaker) (The form tlahtoäni is substituted in the absolutive singular)
tlahtoä (3) ? tlahtoh (pret. stem) + cä (pp suffix as ligature)
tläliä Vt3 = to place, put down, seat
cä = inter-verb ligature: X caa Y = to Y while Xing
Töllan = Tula, the Toltec capital ("place of reeds")
ati (suffix) = to act as
töcäItl = name
mahtläctli = ten
xöchitl = flower
2-A. Niman motënëhua in quënin zan yah Quetzalcöätl:
niman motenehua yn quenin çan ya quetzalcoatl
It is told now that Quetzalcöätl simply left
niman = then, immediately
tënëhua Vt2 = to endorse, mention, give recognition to, praise
in quënin = that which
zan = merely
2-B. catca in ihcuäc ahmo quintläcamati tlätläcatecoloh
catca yn iquac `mo quintlacamati tlatlacatecolo
when he did not obey the demons
cä = to be at a place (Pluperfect form catca is used for preterit.)
ihcuäc = at that time
tläcamati Vt2 = to obey (Reflexive: to become rich.)
tläcatecolötl = "person-owl," hence demon
2-C. in ïc tläcatica moxtlähuaz, tläcamictïz.
ynic tlacatica moxtlahuaz tlacamictiz
to sacrifice human lives, to kill people.
in ïc = in order to
tläcatl = person
Ixtlähua Vt2 = to (re)pay (a debt); Vr = to sacrifice something, perform a religious ritual
miqui Vi2 = to die
mictia Vt3 = to kill
Form Challenge 2-C: How is mictia derived from miqui?
3-A. Niman monohnötzqueh in tlätläcatecoloh.
niman mononotzque yn tlatlacatecolo.
So the demons took counsel.
nötz(a) = to consult
R-h (reduplication of initial syllable +h) = prefix stressing repetitive action
tläcatecolötl (pl: tlätläcatecoloh) = "person-owl," hence demon
3-B. In motöcäyötiäyah Tëzcatlipöca ïhuän Ihhuimecatl Töltëcatl. They were called Tëzcatlipöca, Ihhuimecatl, and Töltëcatl.
-:ya(h) = suffix of imperfect (past indefinite) verb form (Colon indicates preceding vowel is lengthened.)
Tëzcatlipöca (or Tëzcatlepöca) = name of a supernatural, possibly from tëzcatl = mirror and pöchtli = smoke, sometimes rendered "Smoking Mirror"
ihhuitl = feather
mecatl = rope
Ihhui-mecatl = feather-rope
Toltecatl = "The Toltec" (Here: The name of a supernatural, the patron of alcoholic beverages.)
Content Challenge 3-B: Why are these figures called "demons"?
3-C.Quihtohqueh: "Ca monequi in quitlälcähuïz in ïältepëuh oncän tinemizqueh." They said, "It is necessary that he get out of town and that we live there."
ca = Verily (a common particle introducing a clause, often left untranslated)
nequi Vt2 = to desire (reflexive: to be necessary, desirable)
tläl-cähua Vt2 = abandon (literally: land-give)
ältepëtl = town (ätl = water; tepëtl = mountain)
oncän = where, there
nemi Vi2 = to dwell
Form Challenge 3-C: What are the parts of the verbs quitlälcähuïz and tinemizqueh? Are they the same tense?
4-A. Quihtohqueh, "Mä ticchïhuacän octli, They said, "Let us make pulque
ihtoa Vt3 = to say, to speak
mä = optative verb marker
-cän = optative verb suffix
chïhua Vt3 = to make, to do
octli = pluque (corn beer)
Form Challenge 4-A-1: Why does the word "quihtohqueh" begin with "qui"?
Form Challenge 4-A-2: What does "optative" mean? Why doesn't the next phrase use an optative verb?
4-B. tiquïtïzqueh in ic tictlapolöltïzqueh to make him drink it and to make him lose his reason
ii Vt1 = to drink
tlapolöa Vt3 = to lose things [including one's reason]
Form Challenge 4-B: The parts of tiquïtïzqueh are ti.qu.ï.tï.z.queh. What does the element tï mean?
4-C, in ic ahmo tlamahcëhuaz." so that he doesn't do penance."
mahcëhua Vt2 = to merit, deserve
mahcëhualli = merit, virtue (contrast: mäcëhualli = commoner)
tlamahcëhua Vi2 = to do penance, perform religious exercises
Form Challenge 4-C-1: The verb tlamahcëhua is routinely used for religious exercises in Nahuatl, apparently usually including offering drops of one's blood. Is there an adequate but simple English translation that doesn't distort this?
Content Challenge 4-C-2: Spilling one's own blood for religious purposes is usually referred to as "autosacrifice" in the literature on pre-Columbian American societies. Quetxalcöätl is presented in this post-Conquest retelling of the story as opposed to human sacrifice yet seemingly not opposed to the use of human blood in sacrifice. Does this represent a broad post-Conquest view about religious piety? Did the use of human blood in religion continue after the introduction of Christianity? What can you find about this topic on the Internet that you consider trustworthy?
5-A. Auh niman quihtoh in Tëzcatlipöca, "Ca niquihtoa in nehhuätl, mä ticmacatih ïnacayö, quën quihtöz. And so Tëzcatlipöca said,"I say let us go give him his body/flesh, [and we'll see] what he will say.
auh niman = auh niman ye iic = and then
nehhuätl = I
maca Vtt1 = to give [somebody something — requires two objects]
-ti(h) = go + verb (optative form)
nacayötl = flesh, body; something pertaining to the flesh.
quën = how, in what manner
ihtoa Vt3 = to say, to speak
Content Challenge 5-A-1: What can it possibly mean to speak of giving him his flesh?
Form Challenge 5-A-2: The original manuscript ends this sentence with a word spelled quitoz. Here this is taken as a form of ihtoa, but the result is hardly graceful, flowing prose. Some translators assume this should be quittoz from Itta Vt1 = to see. Would that produce a better translation? Explain.
6-A. Quimonepanilhuihqueh in ic iuh quichïhuazqueh. They agreed together about what they were going to do.
ilhuia Vt3= tell, advise (reflexive: reveal, take counsel with)
nepan (prefix) = mutually, each other
nepanoa Vt3= unite (applicative is nepalilhuia)
6-B. Niman achtopa yah in Tëzcatlipöca Tëzcatlipöca was the first to go.
achto/achtopa = first
yäuh Vi = to go (preterit: yah)
6-C. concuïc tëzcatl necoc cemiztitl conquimiloh. He took a large mirror a span wide [that] he packed up.
cui Vt1 = to take, bring; to receive; to have intercourse with
tëzcatl = mirror
necoc = on both sides
iztetl = fingernail, tiny meausre
cemiztitl = distance from the tip of the thumb to the tip of the forefinger
quimiloa Vt3 = to wrap, enshroud
quimilli = bundle of clothes, blankets; twenty
7-A. Auh in öahcic ömpa cah Quetzalcöätl, And when he had arrived where Quetzalcöätl was,
ahci Vti1 = reach, arrive; take, capture
cä Vi = to be in a place (preterit, sometimes used as present: cah)
Form Challenge 7-A: What are the parts of "öahcic"?
7-B. quimilhuih in quipiyayah ïtëcpoyöhuän, xicmilhuïlïtin in tlamacazqui, he said to his stewards who were keeping guard, "Go and tell the priest,
ilhuia Vt3= tell, advise
piya Vt2 = to hold, protect, guard
tëcpoyötl = herald, page (Probably related to tëuctli = lord, but poyötl refers to evil, which makes little sense here. They appear to be servants or guardians of some kind.)
ilhuia Vt3= tell, advise
tlamacazqui = "giver of things," a penitent (a priestly title)
Form Challenge 7-B-1: "Xicmilhuïlïtin" begins with an imperative prefix and ends with an optative "going"suffix. But what are the m and the lï doing in there?
Content Challenge 7-B-2: "Tlamacazqui" is a relatively generic priestly title which was accorded by courtesy to penitants and to noble boys as soon as they entered school. How can we tell whether Tezcatlipoca is being snide or whether the scope of the word is simply very broad?
7-C. 'Ca öhuällah tëlpöchtliï.co auh mitzmottilïco in monacayo.'" 'A young man has arrived who has come to give you and show you your body.'"
huälla Vi = to arrive (huäl + yäuh, preterit yah)
tëlpöchtli = son, young man
maca Vtt1 = to give
-co = suffix (come and verb)
itta = to see
ittiliä = to esteem; to show (literally: cause to see)
nacayötl = flesh, body; something pertaining to the flesh.
-co = suffix (to come + verb)
8-A. Calacqueh in tëtëcpoyoh quicaquiltïto[h] in Quetzalcöätl. The stewards entered and went to tell Quetzalcöätl
tëcpoyötl = herald, steward
calaqui Vt2 = to enter
caqui = hear; + ltia = causative; + to (going suffix) = to tell, say to
8-B. Quimilhuih: tlein on, cöcöl tecpoyötl, tlein nonacayo? He said to them, "What is that, dear steward? What is 'my body'?
ilhuia Vt3= tell, advise
tlein on = "What's that?"
tle(h) (pl. tleihque) = tlein = which, what (interrogative & relative). (The final h is deleted before a consonant.)
cöcöl = "my dear" (derrived from cölli = grandfather) (Appears here as an uninflected form, not showing plural or vocative.)
nacayötl = flesh, body; something pertaining to the flesh.
8-C. In öquihuälcuïc xiquittacän, quin ihcuäc huälcalaquiz." Have a look at what he has brought, and then he can come in."
cui Vt1 = to bring
Itta Vt1 = to see (Useful note: This is the only Nahuatl root with a double T in it.)
quin = and then; when; at that time
quin ihcuäc = and only then
calaqui Vt2 = to enter
9-A. Ahmo quimittitïznec, [Tëzcatlipöca] did not want to show it to them.
ahmo = not
nequi Vt2 = to want (used as a suffix) Vb in future + nequi (inflected) = to want to Vb
Form Challenge 9-A: What is the analysis of "quimittitïznec"?
9-B. Quimilhuih, "Ca nonohmatca nicnottitïlïz in tlamacazqui; xiquilhuïtin." He said to them, "I myself will show it to the priest; go and tell him."
ilhuia Vt3= tell, advise
-nohmah (plural: nohmah = nohmatcah) = self, oneself, in person
Itta Vt1 = to see
xi.qui.lhuï.tin is optative plural with a "going" suffix
10-A. Quilhuiah, "Ahmo ceya, cencah mitzmottilïznequi." They said [to Quetzalcöätl], "He doesn't want to. He absolutely insists on seeing you."
ilhuia Vt3= tell, advise
ahmo = not
ceya Vti2 (preterit: cez, not cex) = to agree, accept, consent
cencah = very much, absolutely
nequi Vt2 = to want (used as a suffix)
10-B. Quihtoh in Quetzalcöätl, "Mä huälläuh, cöcöl." [Quetzalcöätl] said, "Let him come, my dears."
ihtoa Vt3 = to speak
huälläuh = huäl + yah
11-A. Connötzatoh in Tëzcatlipöca. Calac, quitlahpaloh, quilhuih: They went to call Tëzcatlipöca. He entered and greeted [Quetzalcöätl] and said to him,
nötza = to summon
calaqui Vt2 = to enter
tlahpaloa Vt2 = to greet
ilhuia Vt3= tell, advise
11-B. "Nopiltzin tlamacazqui Cë Äcatl Quetzalcöätl, nimitznotlahpalhuia, "My lord, priest One Reed, Quetzalcöätl, I salute you,
tlahpalli = courage, vigor (used as a greeting) (Contrast: tlapalli = red, rosy)
tlahpaloa Vt3 = to greet, salute (Contrast: tlapaloa Vi3= to sop bread in broth)
11-C. ïhuän nimitznottitïlïco in monacayo." and I have come to show you your body."
ïhuän = and
Itta Vt1 = to see
nacayötl = flesh, body
Form Challenge 11-C: Explain the parts of "ï.lï.co."
12-A. Niman quihtoh in Quetzalcöätl, "Ötiquihiyöhuih, cöcöl. Quetzalcöätl said to him, "You endured much, my dear.
niman = and then
ihtoa Vt3 = to speak
ihïyöhuia Vt3 = to suffer, endure
12-B. Cämpa tihuällah? Tlein nonacayo? Mä niquitta." Where have you come from? What is my body? Let me see it."
huällä Vi = to come
cämpä = whence?
huälläuh = huäl + yah
13-A. Quilhuih: "Nopiltzin tlamacazqui, ca nimomäcëhual, [Tëzcatlipöca] said to him, "My lord priest, I am your subject.
pilli = lord The verbal prefix (ni-) attached to the noun makes it a sentence.
13-B. ömpa nihuïtz in Nonohualcatepëtl ïtzintlan. Mä xicmottili in monacayötzin. I have come from the foot of the mountain Nonoalcatepëtl. Behold your body."
ömpa = where, there
huitz = come (preterit used as present)
tzintli = base
tzintlan = at the base, below
Nonohualco = A district in Tenochtitlan (probably named after this incident.)
tepëtl = hill, mountain
Itta Vt1 = to see
nacayötl = flesh, body
Form Challenge 13-B-1: Why is there a variation in spelling between Nonohualcatepëtl and Nonoalcatepëtl?
Content Challenge 13-B-2: Why does Tezcatlipoca add the honorific suffix "-tzin" to monacayö? Respect? Mockery? Smarminess?
14-A. Niman commacac in tezcatl, quilhuih, Then he presented the mirror to him and said to him,
maca Vtt1 = to give
14-B. "Mä ximïxihmati, mä ximotta, nopiltzin. Ca ïpan tonnëciz in tezcatl." "Be wise and look at yourself, my lord. You will appear in the mirror."
ihmat Vt2 = to good at; vr = to be careful, shrewd
ïxtli = surface, eye, face
on (prefix) = then, there
nëci Vi2 = to appear
Form Challenge 14-B: What does "ïpan" mean here?
15-A. Auh niman mottac in Quetzalcöätl, cencah momäuhtih, quihtoh, And so Quetzalcöätl saw himself, and he was much frightened, and he said,
itta Vt1 = to see
mauhtiä vtr = to frighten; be frightened
15-B. "In tlä nëchittacän nomäcëhualhuän motlalözqueh!" "If ever my subjects were to see me, they would run away!"
itta Vt1 = to see
tlaloä vr = to run, flee
16-A. Ïpampa cencah ïxcuätölmimiltic, ïxtecocoyoctic, For he had eyebrows completely puffed up, and eye sockets all pushed in;
cencah = very
ïxcuätolli = eyebrows (excluding hairs)
mimiltic = s.t. round, columnar
mimiloä Vtr3 = to roll over and over, revolve
ïxtecocoyoctli = eye socket
coyöctic = hole (from
coyoni Vti2 = to make a hole, become full of holes + -tic = adjectivizing suffix
16-B. huel nohuiyän xixiquipiltic in ïxäyac. his face was covered with pockmarks.
nohuiyän = everywhere
xiquipilli = purse, sack; pock
xixiquipiltic = pockmarked
xäyac(a)tl = mask, face
16-C. Ahmo tläcacemeleh. He was not pretty to look at.
tläcacemëlleh = person in good condition
cemëlleh = happily, harmoniously
Content Challenge 16-C: Why was Quetzalcöätl in such bad shape?
17. In öquittac tezcatl quihtoh, aïc nëchittaz in nomäcëhual, ca nicän niyez." When he had looked at himself in the mirror, he said, "My people must never see me if I am to remain here."
aïc = never
yez = will be
Content Challenge 17: Why was Quetzalcöätl so worried about this? Did he imagine that nobody had ever seen him before?
18-A. Niman huälquïz quitlälcähuih in Tëzcatlipöca, auh monohnötzqueh in Ihhuimecatl. And so Tëzcatlipöca went away, leaving him, and then Ihhuimecatl came back in with him.
niman = then, and then
tlälcähuiä = to relinquish one's place to sb
ihhuitl = feather
mecatl = rope
18-B. In ïca mohuetzcah, mocayähuah. Laughing, they mocked Quetzalcöätl.
ïca = at him
huetzca Vr1 = to laugh
cayähua Vtr2 = to deceive, to mock.
19.Quihtoh in Ihhuimecatl, "In nëci yeh huälyäuh in Coyötlïnähual in ämantëcatl." Ihhuimecatl said, "He should go to Coyötlïnähual the featherworker."
in = introduces direct quotation nëci = to appear in nëci yeh [idiom] = And here is … (lit: And it appears …) ämantëcatl = artisan (especially featherworker)
20-A. Quicaquiltihqueh in ic yehhuätl yäz Coyötlïnähual in ämantëcatl, quihtoh, When they told Coyötlïnähual the feathermaker that he should go, he said,
caqui = to hear
caquiltiä = to tell sb st (causative of caqui)
Form Challenge 20-A: If caque means " to hear," why does "quicaquiltihqueh" get translated as " they told him"?
20-B. "Ca ye cualli, mä niyäuh. Mä niquitta in Quetzalcöätl." Niman yah. "Well, I must go there. I must go and see Quetzalcöätl." And he went.
cualli = beautiful, good cualli ca = Okay (lexicalized in modern Nahuatl as a single word, cualica, with resultant shift in stress)
yä = to go (Irregular. Present: yäuh, Preterit: huih)
21-A. Quilhuih in Quetzalcöätl, He said to Quetzalcöätl,
Ilhuiä Vtt3 = to tell, say, reveal
21-B. "Nopiltzin, ca niquihtoa, mä ximoquïxti, mä mitzmottilïcän in mäcëhualtin. "My lord, I advise that you, to go out, so that your subjects can see you.
Ihtoä = to say
quïza Vi2 = to go out
Form Challenge 21-B: Fully analyse the word "mitzmottilïcän."
21-C. Mä nimitznochihchïhuili in ic mitzmottilïzqueh." Let me adorn you so that they can see you."
chihchïhua Vt2 = to adorn
Itta Vt1 = to see
21-D. Quilhuih: xicchïhua, niquittaz, nocöl. [Quetzalcöätl] said, "Do it so that I can see well, my friend."
Ilhuiä Vtt3 = to tell, say, reveal
chïhua Vt2 = to do
cölli = grandfather (also used as a term of endearment to an older person)
22-A. Auh niman quichïuh in ämantëcatl in Coyötlïnähual. And so the featherworker Coyotlinahual busied himself with Quetzalcöätl.
chïhua Vt2 = to do
ämantëcatl = artisan (especially featherworker)
22-B. Achto quichïuh in ïapanehcäyöuh Quetzalcöätl; First he made Quetzalcöätl's finery;
achto = first
apanehcäyötl = feather shields & other insignia
23-A. niman quichïhuilih ïxiuhxäyac. then he gave him a mask of turquoise.
chïhua Vt2 = to do, to make
xäyacAtl = mask, face
23-B. Concuïc tlapalli ic contëncuihcuiloh. And he took rouge and put it on his lips.
cuilia Vt3 = to take, to grasp
tlapalli = coloring matter (Contrast: tlahpalli = courage)
tëntli = lip, mouth, edge
23-C. Concuïc cöztic in ic quïxcuauhcalichïuh; And he took yellow [coloring] and put it inside his eyesockets;
cuilia Vt3 = to take, to grasp
cöztic = yellow; golden
ïxtli = eye
cuäuhtli = eagle
cuauhcalli = wood cage, hence prison. (Here: eye socket)
24-A. niman quicöcöhuätlantih. and he gave him serpent's fangs.
cöhuatl = serpent
tlantli = tooth
24-B. Niman quichïhuilih in ïtentzon xiuhtötötl, tläuhquechöl in ic quitzimpachilhuih. Then he made a beard of cotinga feathers, and made the base for it with flamingo feathers tucked in below.
tentli = lip
tzontli = hair, head
tentzontli = beard
xiuhtötötl = cotinga (literally: turquoise bird, a kind of bird)
tlähuitl = red ocre
quechölli = bird with red plumage; flamingo, roseat spoonbill
pachoä = to press, pack
25-A. In öquicencäuh, in iuhqui ïnechihchïhual catca Quetzalcöätl, And when he had prepared it, when Quetzalcöätl had been arrayed in this way,
cencähua = to prepare
iuhqui = thus (=cencah)
nechihchïhualli = costume, get-up
chïhua Vt2 = vt to make
catca = had been
25-B. niman commacac tezcatl. In ömottac cencah mocualittac. he held up the mirror for him. And when he saw himself, he saw it was good.
cencah = very
cualli = good
25-C. Niman huel ihcuäc quïz in Quetzalcöätl in oncän piyalöya. And after that [Quetzalcöätl] departed from the place where they had been guarding him.
ihcuäc = at that time
piya Vt2 = to protect
-lö = passive verb suffix
Form Challenge 25-C: Provide a full analysis of "piyalöya."
26-A. Auh niman yah in Coyötlïnähual in ämantëcatl quilhuïto in Ilhuimecatl: And then Coyötlïnähual the feathermaster went outside and spoke to Ihhuimecatl:
26-B. "Ca önicquïxtïto in Quetzalcöätl. Oc teh xiyäuh." "I have made Quetzalcöätl go out. Now you go."
quïxtia Vt3 = to make someone withdraw
oc = now
teh = tehuatl
27-A. Quihtoh, "Ca ye cualli." [Ihhuimecatl] said, "Good."
27-B. Niman quimocnïuhtih ïtöcä Töltëcatl. In ïnnehuän yahqueh, in ye yäzqueh. And he became friends with [one whose] name was Töltëcatl. And the two left, already prepared to depart.
Icuïuti = to become a friend; to have a friend
Icuïutli = friend, comrade
Icuïutia (motë-) = to become friends with s.b.
Töltëcatl = "The Toltec," in this case the name of a god of alcoholic beverages
yä = to go (Irregular. Present: yäuh. Preterit: huih)
nehuän (suffix) together
ïn = reflexive
28-A. Niman huällahqueh Xönacapacöyän, ïtlan motlälïcoh ïcuënchïuhcäuh, And so they arrived at Xönacapacöyän ("The Place Where Onions Are Washed"), and set themselves up near the gardener
huälyä = to come
xönacatl = onion
päca vtr = to wash laundry; to bathe
ïtlan = there; near
tläliä = to put
cuënchïuhcätl = gardener, farmer
cuëntli = field
chïuhqui (suffix) = maker of (e.g.: cactli = shoe, cacchïuhqui = shoemaker)
chïhua Vt2 = to make
28-B. in Maxtlatön, Töltëcatepëc tlahpiyaya. Maxtlatön, who guarded the Toltec Mountain.
mäxtlatl = loin cloth; breechcloth
tön (suffix) = small
Maxtlatön = "Tiny Loin Cloth" (derrogatory nickname of gardener, something like calling him … well, never mind!)
tlahpiya Vi2 = to stand watch, take care of things [In the omitted material, Ihhuimecatl and Töltëcatl, working with Maxtlatön, prepare a variety of vegetables for a feast, and they gather and ferment maguey to make pulque.]
32-A. Niman yahqueh in ïchän Quetzalcöätl in ömpa Töllän, Then they went to the home of Quetzalcöätl in Tula,
chäntli = home ömpa = there
32-B. mochi quitquïqueh in ïnquil, in ïnchïl, eta. carrying with them the green vegetables and chiles, etc.
mochi = all, everything
Itqui Vt1 = to carry
quilitl = greens
chïlli = chile
33-A. Ahcitoh, ommeyehyecohqueh, Once they had arrived, they tried [to enter],
ahci Vti1 = to catch, arrive, begin
yëcoä vt = to finish, conclude
yecoa Vtr3 = (1) Vt to taste; (2) Vr = to try, to test
33-B. ahmo ceyayah in quipiyayah Quetzalcöätl in ic calcquïzqueh. but the guards of Quetzalcöätl did not want them to enter.
in ic = that
Form Challenge 33-B: What are the parts of "calcquïzqueh"?
33-C. Öppa, ëxpa quincuepqueh, ahmo celïlöyah. Twice, thrice they returned, but they were not received.
cuepa Vtr2 = to (re)turn
ahmo = not
celia Vt3 = to receive, accept, admit
34-A. Zätëpan tlahtlanïlöqueh in cänin ïnchän. Tlanänquilihqueh, quihtohqueh, In the end they were asked where they had come from.They answered, and said,
zätëpan = afterward, ultimately, later, finally
Itlani (with tla-) Vtt2 = to request st, ask sb for st
cänin = where
chäntli = home
nänquilia Vt3= to respond
ihtoa Vt3 = to speak
34-B. "Ca oncän in Tlamacazcätepëc in Töltëcatepëc." "From down there on the hill of Tlamacazcä ("Hill of the Priest") on Toltec Mountain."
tlamacazqui = tlamacazcä = (pre-Hispanic) priest
tëpëtl = hill, mountain
35-A. Iuh quicac in Quetzalcöätl, ye quihtoh, "Mä huälcalaquicän." When Quetzalcöätl heard this, he said, "Let them enter."
caqui Vt2 = to hear
calaqui Vt2 = to enter, come in
35-B. Calacqueh, auh quitlahpalohqueh, yëqueneh quimacaqueh in quilitl, eta. They entered and greeted him, and at last they gave him the vegetables and such.
tlahpaloa Vt2 = to greet
yëqueneh = finally, moreover
quilitl = greens
maca Vtt1 = to give
36-A. Auh in öquicuah, oc ceppa quitlätlauhtihqueh, quimacaqueh in octli. And when he had eaten, they implored him once more, and they gave him the pulque.
cua Vt4 = to eat
ceppa = once
tlätlauhtiä Vtr3 = to implore sb, plead with sb
maca Vtt1 = to give
For a brief English overview of pulque/octli, click here For a more comprehensive account in Spanish, click here
36-B. Auh quimilhuih, "Ca ahmo niquïz, ca ninozahua. But he said to them, "I won't drink any of it, for I am practicing abstention.
ï Vt1 = to drink
zahua Vr2 = to fast, abstain
36-C. Ahzo tëïhuintih ahzo tëmictih." It may be intoxicating, [which would be] perhaps fatal."
ahzo = perhaps
tlähuäna Vi2 = to get tipsy
tlähuäntia Vt3 = to make slightly tipsy
ihuinti Vi1 = to get drunk, blotto
ihuintia Vt3 = to intoxicate, make very drunk
Form Challenge 36-C: What is the "të-" prefix on the front of tëïhuintih and tëmictih?
37. Quilhuihqueh, "Mä momahpiltzin ïc xicpalo, ca tëtlahuëlih, ca huitztli." "They said to him, taste it with your finger, it's strong and refreshing."
mahpilli = finger (from mäItl = hand + pilli = son)
paloa Vt3 = to taste, sip
tlahuëlia Vt3 = to be enraged at
huitztli = thorn, spine
Content Challenge 37: Clearly Ihhuimecatl and Töltëcatl are recommending the pulque, but the terms they use don't seem very inviting if literally rendered. What is a best translation? Use your Nahuatl dictionary to find some other words related to tlahuëlia; what do they say about this "positive" description of pulque? Is it a too much of a stretch to relate this to Aztec ideas about alcoholic beverages? Why (not)?
38-A. In Quetzalcöätl ïmahpiltica quipaloh. Quetzalcöätl tasted it with his finger.
mahpilli = finger
paloa Vt3 = to taste, sip
38-B. In öquihuelmah, quihtoh, "Mä niquï, cöcöl." It tasted good to him, and he said, "Let me drink some, dear friends."
huelmati Vt2 = to taste good to, to taste good in the opinion of
ï Vt1 = to drink
39-A. In ö cë conïc, quilhuihqueh in tlätläcatecoloh, When he had drunk one serving, the demons said to him,
cë = one
ï Vt1 = to drink
tlätlacatl = humane person
tläcatecolotl = devil, monster
Form Challenge 39: What is the structure of the word cë-conïc?
39-B. "Nähui in ticmïtïz." Iuh quimacaqueh ic mäcuilli, quihtohqueh, "Motlatoyähualtzin." "You ought to drink four of them." And they gave him even a fifth, saying, "It's a libation."
nähui = four
mäquïlli = five
ï Vt1 = to drink
ic = ordinal marker
toyähui Vi2 = to leak, spill sprinkle
toyähua Vi1 = to spill out, leak out, sprinkle; to spread out; to collapse.
40-A. Auh in öquïc niman mochintin quimmacaqueh in ïtëcpoyöhuän, And when he had drunk, they gave it to all his servants.
ï Vt1 = to drink
maca Vtt1 = to give
mochi = all
tëcpoyötl = herald
40-B. mochintin mämäcuilli in quïqueh, in öquincentlähuäntihqueh. and they all drank five cups each, and thus they all became completely drunk.
ï Vt1 = to drink
mäquïlli = five (reduplication with numbers = "each")
cen (as stem prefix) = completely
tlähuäna Vi2 = to get tipsy.
ihuinti Vi1= to get blasted, potted.
Form Challenge 40-B: Why does the text use the term "tlähuäna" here for the servants when it used the term "ihuinti" when the "demons" were predicting the results of their efforts?

[In a deleted portion, Ihhuimecatl and Töltëcatl persuade the drunken Quetzalcöätl to sing a song that they have composed. It is omitted because it does not clearly enough follow standard Nahuatl morphology and syntax, but the gist of it is that Quetzalcöätl sings that he must leave his magnificent palace forever.]

43-A. Auh in ye päcticah Quetzalcöätl, quihtoh, And while Quetzalcöätl was still drunk, he said,
auh in ye = and when
päcticah = happy
43-B. "Xicänatin in nohuëltïuh Quetzalpetlatl, mä tonehuän titlähuänacän." "Fetch my sister Quetzalpetlatl, so that we can drink together."
äna Vt2 = to sieze, take hold of, fetch
huëltïuhtli = elder Si (of a man)
petlAtl = woven sleeping mat
nehuän = both together
tlähuäna Vi2 = to get tipsy.
Form Challenge 43-B-1: What is the "to" doing as a prefix to "nehuän"? How should it be accommodated in the translation?
Content Challenge 43-B-2: The literal translation of "Quetzalpetlatl" seems to be something like "feather mat." Do you think this is evidence for the "incest interpretation" mentioned in connection with line 48? Why (not)?
44-A. Yahqueh in ïtecpoyöhuän in ömpa tlamahcëhuaya Nonohualcätepëc, So his servants went to the Hill of Nonohualco, where she was doing penance,
yä Vi = to go (irregular)
tëcpoyötl = herald
ömpa = where
mahcëhu(a) vt = to obtain, deserve. Tlamacëhu(a) = to do penance.
tlamahcëhua Vi2 = to do penance, perform religious exercises
Nonohualco = Nonoalco = a district of Tenochtitlan
ältepëtl = town (from ätl = water + tepëtl = mountain)
44-B. quilhuïtoh, "Nopiltzin cihuäpilli Quetzapetlatl mozauhqui, ca timitztänilicoh; and they said, "Noble lady Quetzalpetlatl, penitent, we have come to seek you;
ilhuia Vt3= tell, advise
zahua Vr2 = to fast, abstain
mozauhqui = penitent (agentive verbal noun)
tlän (suffix) = place of, at, beside
Form Challenge 44-B: The parts are ti.mitz.tlä, producing a verb derived from a prepositional suffix. Making reference to the grammar as needed, explain how this verb leads to the translation povided. Or does it? What is a more accurate translation?
44-C. mitzmochi[yi]lia in tlamacazqui in Quetzalcöätl, the priest Quetzalcöätl awaits you,
chiya Vt2 = to await (here converted to a polite reverential form with an applicative suffix negated by a reflexive pronoun prefix)
44-D. ïtlanïuh." that you may go and be by his side."
tlän (suffix) = place of, at, beside
ye Vi (preterit: cah) = to be
45-A. Quihtoh, "Ca ye cualli, mä tihuiyän, cöcöl tëcpoyötl." She said, "Very well, let us go, dear servants."
45-B. Auh in öhuällah, ïtlan motlälih in Quetzalcöätl. And when she arrived, and was seated beside Quetzalcöätl.
tlälia Vt3 = to seat; Vr3 = to sit down
Form Challenge 45-A: There are people who like to say that the particle "in" is an article because it often precedes nouns. Here we also see it falling before a verb to make a subordinate clause. Based on what you have seen so far, what is the best way to explain the general function of "in"?
45-C. Niman öquimacaqueh in octli nähui, nö zan ïtlatoyähual ic mäquïlli. He gave her four servings to drink, and also a fifth, his "libation."
maca Vtt1 = to give
octli = pulque
nähui = four
nö = also
toyähui Vi2 = to leak, spill sprinkle
toyähua Vi1 = to spill out, leak out, sprinkle; to spread out; to collapse.
ic = ordinal marker
mäquïlli = five

[In deleted material, once Ihhuimecatl and Töltëcatl have made everyone drunk, they sing to Quetzalpetlatl, reminding her that she had not been seen lately (which was in fact because she was doing penance). ]

48-A. In öïhuintiqueh aocmö quihtohqueh in tläcah, "Titlamahcëuhqueh!" When they were drunk, the people no longer said, "We are doing penance!"
tlähuäna Vi2 = to get tipsy
tlähuäntia Vt3 = to make slightly tipsy
ihuinti Vi1 = to get drunk, blotto
ihuintia Vt3 = to intoxicate, make very drunk
aocmö = no longer
ihtoa Vt3 = to speak
tläcatl = person
tlamahcëhua Vi2 = to do penance, perform religious exercises
48-B. Auh niman nö ahmo äpan temoh48 , And they no longer descended to the river.
auh niman = and then
nö = also
ätl = water
tëmoa Vt3= to seek st
temöhua Vi1 = to descend
48-C. Aocmo mohuitztlätïtoh. They did not pierce themselves with thorns.
aocmö = no longer
huitztli = thorn
48-D. Aoctle quichïuhqueh in tlahuizcalpan. They did nothing till dawn.
aoctle = nothing
chihua Vt2 = to do, make
tlähuizcalli = dawn (as light)
Content Challenge 48-D: The text says they did nothing, and from the context it apparently means they did nothing about their penance. Many commentators see this night as an occasion of incest. What evidence do we have in this text of incest? Is there any reason to imagine that "doing nothing" precludes incest?
49. Auh in ötlathuic, cencah tlaöcoxqueh; icnöyöhuac in ïnyölloh. And when the day came, they were very sad; their hearts were full of sadness.
tlathui Vi1 = to dawn, to become light
cencah = very much
tlaöcoya Vi2 = to be sad
Icnö- (prefix) = poor, humble, miserable (hence: Icnötl, an orphan)
yohua Vi1 = to get dark, for night to fall
yölli = heart

[In his sadness, Quetzalcöätl sings a chant of lamentation. The text is difficult to interpret with certainty, but the general flow of thought is that his house has become a place of regrets, and that he has not accomplished what he hoped for. He mentions his mother, the goddess of the serpent skirt, apparently implying that he has failed her as well.]

52-A. In ihcuäc öcuïcac Quetzalcöätl, When Quetzalcöätl had sung this
ihcuäc = at that very time
cuïca Vi1 = siong
52-B. niman mochintin tlaöcoxqueh in ïtëcpoyöhuän, chöcaqueh. all his servants were saddened and wept.
mochi = all
tlaöcoya Vi2 = to be sad
tëcpoyötl = herald, page, servant
chöca Vi1 = to weep, cry, wail

[The servants in their turn sing a lament that Quetzalcöätl, once a "tree as pure as jade" is now broken.]

54-A. Auh in öcuïcaqueh ïtëcpoyöhuän, Quetzalcöätl niman oncän quimilhuih, And when his servants had finished singing, Quetzalcöätl said to them,
cuïca Vi1 = sing
tëcpoyötl = herald, page, servant
ihtoa Vt3 = to say to, speak to
54-B. "Cöcöl tëcpoyötl, mä ïxquich. Mä nictlälcähui in ältepëtl, mä niyäuh. "Dear servant, that's all. I must leave the town, I must go away.
ïxquich = all
tëcpoyötl = herald, page, servant (It's not clear why it is singular here; Quetzalcöätl seems to be addressing all of them.)
tlälcähuiä 3 = to relinquish one's place to sb
54-C. Xitlanähuatïcän mä quichïhuacän tepetlacalli." Give the order that they make me a stone chest."
tlanahuatihqui = envoy, messenger
chïhua Vt2 = to make, do
tetl = stone
petlacalli = reed hamper, case
55-A. Niman ye iuh ca quixïnqueh centetl tepetlacalli, And so they made him, indeed, a stone chest
xïma Vt2 (preterit: xïn) = to smooth, shape, plane (wood or stone), do carpentry on
centetl = one
55-B. auh in ihcuäc öquixïnqueh, … in öyecauh, niman oncän quitëcaqueh in Quetzalcöätl. and when they had made it, … they laid Quetzalcöätl down in it.
xïma Vt2 = to smooth, shape, plane (wood or stone), do carpentry on
tëca Vtr1 = to stretch or spread st out on a surface (preterit used as present)

[He lay in the stone hamper for four days, and then ordered his servants to hide all of the objects associated with his reign, which they concealed at a place called Ätëcpanämöchco. Then he and his servants set out on foot across the landscape towards the sea.]

62-A. Yeh ïpan inin xihuitl cë äcatl motënëhua. It was in the year called one-reed.
ïnin = this
tënëhua Vtr2 = to say, pronounce, call, be called
cë äcatl = one reed, the name of the year of Quetzalcöätl's birth and of his death
62-B. Mihtoa in ihcuäc öahcito teöäpan ilhuicaätënco, It is said that when he arrived at the sea, on the shore of the ocean,
ihcuäc = when, at the very time when
ahci Vti1 = to reach
teötl = god
ätl = water
ilhuicatl = heaven ilhuica-ätl = ilhuicätl = the ocean surrounding the earth
Form Challenge 62-B: What are the literal translations of the two words for the ocean used here? Do these words suggest anything about how Nahuatl speakers viewed the sea? Do they tell us anything about Quetzalcöätl's death and its significance? How so?
62-C. niman moquetz, chöcac, concuïc in ïtlatqui, mochihchïuh he stopped, cried, arranged his belongings, and got dressed in
quetza Vtr2 = to stand, to erect, to stop; Vr = to stop
chöca Vi1 = to cry, weep, wail
chihcïhua Vt2 = to arrange, adorn; Vr = to get dressed
62-D. in ïapanehcäyöuh, in ïxiuhxäyac, eta. his finery, his turquoise mask, etc.
apanehcäyötl = feather shields & other insignia xihuItl = turquoise xäyacAtl = face, mask
63-A. Auh in ihcuäc ömocencäuh, And when he had entirely prepared himself,
cencähua Vt2 = prepare
63-B. niman ic ïnohmatcah motlatih, motlecähuih: he himself set himself on fire, put himself into the flames
nohmatcah = himself, in person
tlatia Vt3 = to burn, set fire to
tlecähuia Vt3 = to burn, set fire to
63-C. ic motöcäyötia in Tlatlayän in ömpa motlatïto in Quetzalcöätl. And that is why it is called Tlatlayän, the place where Quetzalcöätl was burned.
tlatia Vt3 = to burn, set fire to
töcäyötia Vr3 = to be called
64-A. Auh mihtoa in ihcuäc in ye tlatla, And they say that when he burned,
ihtoa Vt3 = to say to, speak to
ihcuäc = when, at the very time when
tlatla Vi2 = to burn
64-B. niman ye ic ahco quïza in ïnexyo, his ashes rose up into the air,
ahco = upward
quïza Vi2 = to emerge, leave, depart
nextli = ashes, cinders
64-C. auh in nëciya in quittayah and there appeared, as they looked at it,
nëci Vi2 = to appear
Itta Vt1 = to see
64-D. mochi tlazohtötömeh in ahco quïzah, in ilhuicac quimonitta, all the rare birds, which flew upwards; and there were to be seen in the sky
mochi = all
tlazoh = precious
tötötl = bird
quïza Vi2 = to emerge, leave, depart
ahco = upwards
ilhuicatl = sky, heavens
65-A. tläuhquechöl, xiuhtötötl, tzinitzcän, äyöcuän, the spoonbills, the cotinga, the trogans, the herons
65-B. toznenemeh, alomeh, cochomeh, ïxquich in oc cequi tlazohtötömeh. the yellow-headed toznene perakeets, the ara, the white cocho perakeets, and all the other rare birds.
ïxquich = all
tlazoh = precious
tötötl = bird
cequi = others
66-A. Auh in ontlan ïnexyo, niman ye ic ahco quïza in ïyölloh Quetzalcöätl And after his ashes there [were all gone], then the heart of Quetzalcöätl rose up,
nextli = ashes, cinders
auh = and, but, then, what's more
on = there
-tlan (suffix) = next to
ye ic = behold
niman ye ic = then, thereupon
ahco = upwards
quïza Vi2 = to emerge, leave, depart
66-B. in quittah, auh in iuh quimatiyah, ilhuicac yah, ilhuicac calac. as they saw, and according to their belief, and it went into the sky; it entered the sky.
Itta Vt1 = to see
iuh = thus
in iuh = after having, at the moment when, according to
mati = to know, feel, believe
ilhuicatl = sky, heaven
yä Vi (preterit: yah) = to go
calaqui Vt2 = to enter
67-A. Quihtoäyah in huëhuetqueh yehhuätl mocuep in citlälin in tlahuizcalpan huälnëci: The old people said that it changed into the star that appears at dawn
ihtoa Vt3 = to speak
hueehueh (Plural: hueehuetqueh; possessed -hueehuetcaauh)
Observation: Notice that the singular ends in -h, which is replaced by -t in derivations, suggesting that to some ears they were similar sounds. Alternations of this kind help support the argument that h was a glottal stop in the classical language, rather than a fricative (sound made with the frication of the air flow against the speech tract) like English h.
cuepa Vt2 = send back, return
citlälin = star
tlahuizcalli = the light of dawn
nëci Vi2 = to appear
Form Challenge 67-A: Is it better to translate "quihtoäyah" as "said" or "used to say"? Why?
67-B. in iuh quihtoah, in ihcuäc nëcico in mic Quetzalcöätl, according to what they say, it appeared when Quetzalcöätl died,
in iuh = after having, at the moment when, according to
ihtoa Vt3 = to speak
ihcuäc = when, at the very time when
nëci Vi2 = to appear
miqui Vi2 = to die
Form Challenge 67-B: There are three instances in this line of the paticle "in," translated by some dictionaries as "the" or described by some writers as an "article" (like "the" or "an" in English). Is there any explanation (or translation) that would accommodate all three instances of "in" here?
67-C. yeh quitöcäyötiäyah Tlahuizcalpantëuctli. so they called it Tlahuizcalpantëuctli ("Lord of the Dawn").
töcäyötia Vt3 = to name; Vr = to be called
tlahuizcalli = the light of dawn
tëuctli = lord
68-A. In quihtoäyah, in ihcuäc mic zan nähuilhuitl in ahmo nëz. According to what they said, when he died, it was not seen for four days.
ihtoa Vt3 = to speak
ihcuäc = when, at the very time when
miqui Vi2 = to die
nähui = four
ilhuitl = day, festival
ahmö/ahmo = no, not
nëci Vi2 = to appear
68-B. Quihtoäyah, ihcuäc mictlän nemito. They said that then he went to dwell in the realm of the dead.
miqui Vi2 = to die
nemi Vi2 = to live
Form Challenge 68-B: What form is "nemito"?
69-A. Auh nö nähuilhuitl momïtih, And during the four days [there] he made darts,
nö = also
nähui = four
ilhuitl = day, festival
mïtl = dart
mïtia Vr3 = to acquire darts, arm oneself with darts
69-B. ye chicuëyilhuitica in nëcico huëyi citlälli, and at the end of eight days a great star appeared,
ye = for a time, already, after a time of
chicuëyi = eight
ilhuitl = day, festival
nëci Vi2 = to appear
guëyi = large
citlälin/citlälli = star
Form Challenge 69-B: What form is "nëcico"?
69-C. in quihtoäyah Quetzalcöätl, quihtoäyah ihcuäc motëuctlälih. which they called Quetzalcöätl, and they said that he established himself in his realm.
ihtoa Vt3 = to speak
ihcuäc = when, at the very time when
tëuctlälia Vt3 = to crown, establish as leader, monarch

[Thereafter whenever Quetzalcöätl appeared as a star, he appeared, it was believed, on behalf of particular groups of people, depending on the day-sign of the calendar, striking them with his darts, whatever the implications of that may be.]

74-A. In ömotënëuh Quetzalcöätl in ic nenco ïxquich And that was the whole life of the one called Quetzalcöätl
tënëhua Vtr = pronounce, mention, express; Vr = to be called, "the so-called"
in ic = at all
nemi Vi2 = to live
ïxquich = all
74-B. in in tläcat ïpan cë äcatl auh in mic nö ïpan cë äcatl. who was born in the year one-reed and also died in the year one-reed.
tläcati Vi2 = to be born
cë = one
äcatl = reed
miqui Vi2 = to die
nö = also
ïpan = on it, at the time of it, then
74-C. In ic mocempöhua in ic cencah liii años. And they calculate that he lived a total of 53 years.
cempöhua Vr2 = to add up (to)
cencah = a lot (here: in total)
Content Challenge 74-C-1: How does being born and dying in a year with the same name add up to living a total of 53 years?
Content Challenge 74-C-2: Is this a story about a man or about a god? If it is about a man, did he think he was a god? If you were to make a film of this story, how would you present him? Why?
(Codex Nuttall)

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