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Research Institutions Conducting Research on Credit


EUI Finance and Consumption Programme (ITALY)

L'Observatoire du crédit et de l'Endettement (BELGIUM)

National Bureau of Economic Research (USA)

Financial Institutions Center (USA)

Observatory of Consumers' Indebtedness (OEC) (PORTUGAL)

Experian Centre for Economics Modelling (UK)

The Credit Research Centre at the University of Edinburgh (UK)

Personal Finance Research Centre (UK )

Center for Financial Studies (GERMANY)

Institut für Finanzdienstleistungen e.V. (GERMANY)

Centre de Droit de la Consommation at the Université de Louvain (BELGIUM)

The Iens Verburgh Institute for Consumer Law (IVIC) (HOLLAND)

Statistical Methods in Retail Financial Services Research Group (UK)

Credit Research Center at Georgetown University (USA)

Centro de Estudios de Consumo (SPAIN)



World Bank’s research project on credit reporting and credit registries





Academic Articles Related to the Topic of Credit and Rational Calculation and Trust


Credit Cards

The Failure of Competition in the Credit Card Market
by Lawrence M. Ausubel. 1991.

Consumer Rationality and Credit Cards
by Dagobert L. Brito and Peter R. Hartley. 1995.

Card-Based Payment Systems in the US and Japan
by Ronald J. Mann. 2001.

Credit Cards and Debit Cards in the United Sates and Japan
by Ronald J. Mann. 2002.

Forecasting Consumer Credit Card Adoption: What Can We Learn about the Utility Function?
by Min Qi and Sha Yang. 2003.

Cash, Paper and Electronic Payments: a Cross-Country Analysis
by David B. Humphrey, Lawrence B. Pulley, and Jukka M. Vesala. 1996.


Credit Scoring and Evaluation

A Survey of Credit and Behavioral Scoring: Forecasting Financial Risk of Lending to Consumers
by Lyn C. Thomas.  2000.

Credit Risk Measurement: Development over the Last 20 Years
by Edward I. Altman and Anthony Saunders. 1998.

Credit Scoring Systems: A Critical Analysis
by Noel Capon. 1982.

Empirical Analysis of the Commercial Loan Classification Decision
by J. Richard Dietrich and Robert S. Kaplan. 1982.

Credit Granting: A Comparative Analysis of Classification Procedures: Discussion
by Robert A. Eisenbeis. 1987.

Quantitative Methods in Credit Management: A Survey
by Eric Rosenberg and Alan Gleit. 1994.

A $k$-Nearest-Neighbour Classifier for Assessing Consumer Credit Risk
by W.E. Henley and D.J. Hand. 1996.

Credit Scoring: Probabilities and Pitfalls
by Cynthia A. Glassman and Howard M. Wilkins. 1997.

Sample Selection in Credit-Scoring Models
by William Greene. 1998.

Bank Lending Policy, Credit Scoring and Value-at-Risk
by Tor Jacobson and Kasper Roszbach. 2001.

The Development of Numerical Credit Evaluation Systems
by James H. Myers and Edward W. Forgy. 1963.

Measuring Risk on Consumer Instalment Credit
by Paul F. Smith. 1964.

LDC Credit-risk Forecasting and Banker Judgement
by R.A. Somerville and R.J. Taffler. 2001.

Banker Judgement Versus Formal Forecasting Models: the Case of Country Risk Assessment
by R.A. Somerville and R.J. Taffler. 1995.

From Moral Evaluation to Rationalization: Accounting and the Shifting Technologies of Credit
by Ingrid Jeacle and Eamonn J. Walsh. 2002.

Comment: Evaluative Techniques in Consumer Finance--Experimental Results and Policy Implications for Financial Institutions
by Mark Nelson. 1974.

Credit Granting: A Comparative Analysis of Classification Procedures
by Venkat Srinivasan and Yong H. Kim. 1987.

Meeting the Equal Credit Opportunity Act's Specificity Requirements: Judgemental and Statistical Scoring
by Winnie Faye Taylor. 1979.

Actuarial Science-A Survey of Theoretical Development
by Charles A. Spoerl. 1951.


Information Sharing and Credit Bureaus

Information Sharing, Lending and Defaults: Cross-Country Evidence
by Tullio Jappelli and Marco Pagano. 2002.

Credit Information Sharing Mechanisms in Mexico: Evaluation, Perspectives and Effects on Small Firm Credit
by Jose Luis Negrin. 2001.

Information Sharing in Credit Markets
by Marco Pagano and Tullio Jappelli. 1993.

The Value of Private Sector  Business Credit Information Sharing: The US Case
by Jarl G. Kallberg and Gregory F. Udell. 2003.

Endogenous Communication Among Lenders and Entrepreneurial Incentives
by A. Jorge Padilla and Marco Pagano. 1997.

Credit Bureau Policy and Sustainable Reputation Effects in Credit Markets
by James A. Vercammen. 1995.

Credit Scoring: Statistical Issues and Evidence from Credit Bureau Files
by Robert V. Avery, Raphael W. Bostic, Paul S. Calem, and Glenn B. Canner. 2000.

Can Credit Registries Reduce Credit Constraints? Empirical Evidence on the Role of Credit Registries in Firm Investment Decisions
by Arturo Galindo and Margaret Miller. 2001.

Predictive Value of Credit Bureau Reports
by Gary G. Chandler and Lee. E. Parker. 1989.


Trust and Credit

Trust and Social Capital in the Regulation of  Lending Activities
by Michel Ferrary. 2002.

Getting Deals Done: The Use of Social Networks in Bank Decision Making
by Mark S. Mizruchi and Linda B. Stearns. 2002.

Ethnic Networks and Access to Credit: Evidence from the Manufacturing Sector in Kenya
by Tyler Biggs, Mayank Raturi, and Pradeep Srivastava. 2002.

Trust and Inter-firm Relations in Developing and Transition Economies
by John Humphrey and Hubert Schmitz. 1998.

Interfirm Relationships and Informal Credit
by John McMillan and Christopher Woodruff. 1999.

The Microfinance Promise
by Jonathan Morduch. 1999.


Judgmental vs. Statistical Prediction

Interaction of Judgemental and Statistical Forecasting Methods: Issues and Analysis
by Derek Bunn and George Wright. 1991.

Clinical Versus Actuarial Judgement
by Robyn M. Dawes, David Faust and Paul E. Meehl. 1989.

A Message from Psychologists to Economists: Mere Predictability Doesn't Matter Like It Should (Without a Good Story Appended to It)
by Robyn M. Dawes. 1988.

Clinical and Actuarial Judgement
by Benjamin Kleinmuntz, David Faust, Paul E. Meehl, and Robin M. Dawes. 1990.

Reaching a Consensus
by Morris H. DeGroot.1974.


Comparative Economic Institutions

Institutions in Transition: Reliability of Rules and Economic Performance in Former Socialist Countries
by Aymo Brunetti, Gregory Kisunko and Beatrice Weder.

Voices of the Firms 2002: Investment Climate and Governance Findings of the World Business Environment Survey (WBES)
by Geeta Batra, Daniel Kaufmann and Andrew H. W. Stone. 2002.

Dodging the Grabbing Hand: The Determinants of Unofficial Activity in 69 Countries
by Eric Friedman, Simon Johnson, Daniel Kaufmann and Pablo Zoido-Lobaton. 2000.

Ten Years After: What is Special about Transition Countries?
by Daniel Gros and Marc Suhrcke. 2000.

Governance Matters
by Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kraay, and Pablo Zoido-Lobaton. 1999.

Governance Matters II: Updated Indicators for 2000/01
by Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kraay, and Pablo Zoido-Lobaton. 2002.

Trust in Transition
by Martin Raiser. 1999.

Legal Determinants of External Finance
by Rafael La Porta, Florencio Lopez-De-Silanes, Andrei Shleifer and Robert Vishney. 1997.

Financial Markets, Money and Banking
by Lisa A. Keister. 2002.

How Difficult Is It To Construct Market Relations? A Commentary on Platteau
by Mick Moore. 1994.

The Role of Moral Norms (Behind the Market Stage Where Real Societies Exist, part 2)
by Jean-Philippe Platteau. 1994.


Miscellaneous Theoretical Articles

Fundamental Uncertainty and Ambiguity
by David Dequech. 2000.

Background Uncertainty and the Demand for Insurance against Insurable Risks
by Luigi Guiso and Tullio Jappelli. 1998.

Systems Competition and Network Effects
by Michael L. Katz and Carl Shapiro. 1994.

Equilibrium in Competitive Insurance Markets: An Essay on the Economics of Imperfect Information
by Michael Rothschild and Joseph Stiglitz. 1976.

The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism
by George A. Akerlof. 1970.

Job Market Signaling
by Michael Spence. 1973.

Credit Risk and Credit  Rationing
by Donald R. Hodgman. 1960.

Imperfect Information, Uncertainty and Credit Rationing
by Dwight M. Jaffee and Thomas Russell. 1976.

Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information
by Joseph E. Stiglitz and Andrew Weiss. 1981.

Imperfect Information, Uncertainty and Credit Rationing: Comment and Extension
by Kerry D. Vandell. 1984.

Collateral in Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information: Note
by Hildegard C. Wette. 1983.

Credit Rationing: Reply
by Joseph E. Stiglitz and Andrew Weiss. 1987.

Externalities in Economics with Imperfect Information and Incomplete Markets
by Bruce C. Greenwald and Joseph E. Stiglitz. 1986.

Judgement under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases
by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. 1974.

Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk
by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. 1979.

The Framing Decisions and the Psychology of Choice
by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. 1981.

Perception of Risk
by Paul Slovic. 1987.

Behavioral Macroeconomics and Macroeconomic Behavior
by George A. Akerlof. 2002.

Payment, Protection and Punishment: The Role of Information and Reputation in the Mafia
by Alistair Smith and Federico Varese. 2000.

Accounting and the Examination: a Genealogy of Disciplinary Power
by Keith W. Hoskin and Richard H. Macve. 1986.

Testing a Point Null Hypothesis: The Irreconcilability of $P$ Values and Evidence
by James O. Berger and Thomas Sellke. 1987.

Bayes Offers a 'New' Way to Make Sense of Numbers (Bayesian Statistics)
by David Malakoff. 1999.

Sequence Analysis: New Methods for Old Ideas
by Andrew Abbott. 1995.

Procrastination and Obedience
by George A. Akerlof. 1991.