The British ethnologist Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955) helped to pave the way to (since outdated) group-selectionist ideas. He maintained that the health of a society could be measured by how well its members were integrated, societal structure being "like that of the organic structure of a living body" (Radcliffe-Brown 1952, cit. in Jay 1963: 224). The analogy to body cells suggests that the individual within society has little value. Dolhinow applied this to societies of non-human primates where age and sex classes fulfill roles to support the "functionally integrated structure". Variability in behaviour may lead to "temporary alterations in the 'normal' structure" but such "disequilibrium" will soon give way to the original "equilibrium" (Jay 1963: 239). This catechism of harmonious togetherness knows no place for acts that do not foster group cohesion.
Tragically, Nazi ideology was built on similar convictions, and Konrad Lorenz himself lent pseudo-scientific credibility to it. He, who held a degree in medical sciences, proposed to eradicate "asocial" members from the "supra- individual organism" of the Deutsches Reich, just as a doctor has to cut out cancerous cells from individual bodies (Lorenz 1940, cit. in Muller-Hill 1984). There is certainly no straight line from the Nazis via Lorenz to the rejection of the idea that so-called "selfish" behaviour is pathological. However, it is worth noting that group-selectionist (=systemic) arguments can be as easily perverted into fascist currency as gene-centered (=individualistic) views (cf. Segerstrale 1992, 2000).
Further reading (caveat emptor; some is good, some less so -- read several before drawing any conclusions!):
Thanks to Volker Sommer for permission to quote his paper here.