Brief History


Primary source for the following Site Data is McGrew et. al. (1996), Great Ape Societies (Cambridge University Press), Appendix.


Name: Lomako
Location: D. R. Congo [ex-Zaire], Province de Equateur, 0° 51' N, 21° 5' E
Status: Unprotected, timber concession granted
Area: 30km2 in 3500km^2 of undisturbed forest
Altitude: 390m
Temp: --- °C
Rainfall: 1850mm (1994)
Vegetation: Polyspecific primary forest, primary evergreen forest, swamp forest
Hunting mostly with bow and arrow, snaring, gathering of fruit, honey, leaves, medicinal plants, fishing, no provisioning
Disturbance ratings -- 2, 1, 1, 3, 1
P. paniscus (Eyengo community)
--- individuals per km2
Fauna: Perodicticus potto, Galago demidovii, Colobus angolensis, Cercopithecus ascanius, C. mona, Cercocebus aterrimus, Panthera pardus
1974-91 intermittent by SUNY Stony Brook; Project Pan 1990- present
Habituation: Good
Conservation: None
Communication, socio-ecology of nest building, social organization, food sharing, play
Methods: focal-subject sampling, nest-to-nest, ad libitum
Gottfried Hohmann/Barbara Fruth, Max-Planck-Institut fur Verhaltensphysiologie, D-82319 Seewiesen, Germany
Habitat photos ---
Maps ---
Aerial photos ---
Bibliography References for data found in this site, and other sources relating to Lomako
  • Badrian, A. & Badrian, N. R. (1984). Social organization of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire. pp. 325-346 IN Susman, R. L. (Ed.), The Pygmy Chimpanzee. New York: Plenum.
  • Badrian, N. & Malenky, R. K. (1984). Feeding ecology of Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire. pp. 275-299 IN Susman, R. L. (Ed.), The Pygmy Chimpanzee. New York: Plenum.
  • Chapman, C. A., White, F. J. & Wrangham, R. W. (1993). Defining subgroup size in fission-fusion societies. Folia primatol. 61: 31-34.
  • Chapman, C. A., White, F. J. & Wrangham, R. W. (1994). Party size in chimpanzees and bonobos. pp. 41-57 IN Wrangham, R. W., McGrew, W. C., de Waal, F. B. M., Heltne, P. G. & Marquardt, L. A. (Ed.), Chimpanzee Cultures. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Fruth, B. & Hohmann, G. (1993). Ecological and behavioral aspects of nest building in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ethology. 94: 113-126.
  • Gerloff, U., Schlotterer, C., Rassmann, K., Rambold, I. & others. (1995). Amplification of hypervariable simple sequence repeats (microsatellites) from excremental DNA of wild living bonobos (Pan paniscus). Molec. Ecol. 4: 515-518.
  • Hohmann, G. & Fruth, B. (1993). Field observations on meat sharing among bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia primatol. 60: 225-229.
  • Hohmann, G. & Fruth, B. (1994). Structure and use of distance calls in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). Int. J. Primatol. 15: 767-782.
  • Malenky, R. K. & Stiles, E. W. (1991). Distribution of terrestrial herbaceous vegetation and its consumption by Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire. Am. J. Primatol. 23: 153-169.
  • Malenky, R. K. & Wrangham, R. W. (1994). A quantitative comparison of terrestrial herbaceous food consumption by Pan paniscus in the Lomako Forest, Zaire, and Pan troglodytes in the Kibale Forest, Uganda. Am. J. Primatol. 32: 1-12.
  • McGraw, S. (1994). Census, habitat preference, and polyspecific associations of six monkeys in the Lomako Forest, Zaire. Am. J. Primatol. 34: 295-307.
  • White, F. J. (1989). Ecological correlates of pygmy chimpanzee social structure. pp. 151-164 IN Standen, V. & Foley, R. A. (Ed.), Comparative Socioecology: The Behavioural Ecology of Humans and Other Mammals. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.
  • White, F. J. (1992). Pygmy chimpanzee social organization: variation with party size and between study sites. Am. J. Primatol. 26: 203-214.
  • White, F. J. (1992). Activity budgets, feeding behavior, and habitat use of pygmy chimpanzees at Lomako, Zaire. Am. J. Primatol. 26: 215-223.
  • White, F. J. & Burgman, M. A. (1990). Social organization of the pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus): Multivariate analysis of intracommunity associations. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 83: 193-201.
  • White, F. J. & Chapman, C. A. (1994). Contrasting chimpanzees and bonobos: nearest neighbor distances and choices. Folia primatol. 63: 181-191.
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