The Life of the Buddha (Glossary)

Glossary

Simplified characters are in red, traditional ones in blue.
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A
(The character is here Romanized as "ē," following modern standardized pronunciation.)
Ānbā 安巴 安巴
name of a village
Ān-móluó 庵摩罗 菴摩羅
name of a singing girl
Ān-móluó shùyuán 庵摩罗术园 菴摩羅術園
name of a grove
B
bā jìng fǎ 八敬法 八敬法
eight commands issued specifically for female followers.
Bátí 拔提 拔提 or Mónábátí 摩男拔提 摩男拔提
Bhadrika, Bhaddiya
prince at the court of King Jìngfàn
Bāzhà 巴咤 巴吒
name of a village
bìbōluó 毕波罗 畢波羅
a kind of tree
bǐqiū 比丘 比丘
bhikshu
mendicant scholars; disciples of the Buddha
Bōgē-suǒ 钵哥索 鉢哥索
a fellow-student of Xīdá-duō
Bōluó-nài 波罗奈 波羅奈
name of a town (and kingdom) where Vārānasi (Benares) now stands
Bōpó Tǎ 波婆塔 波婆塔
name of a pagoda (tǎ)
C
chándìng 禅定 禪定
dhyāna
meditation
Chēnì 车匿 車匿
Chandaka or Channa, Xīdá-duō's driver
chūjiā 出家 出家
pravraj
to leave one's family and become a mendicant; the less common full phrase is chūjiā rùdào 出家入道 出家入道 ; to leave home and enter the Way. A common translation is "renounce the family." Buddhism does not condemn families, but families are believed often to be distracting from religious advancement.
chūjiārén 出家人 出家人
a person who has left home to become a wandering mendicant; or to become a Buddhist monk or nun. (Occasionally the term is used for leaving home only metaphorically.)
Chúntuó 淳陀 淳陀
the son of a goldsmith
cíbēi 慈悲 慈悲
compassion, pity; merciful.
D
Dá'ē-nòumǎ 达阿耨玛 達阿耨瑪
name of a river
Dáhù-qié 达护伽 達護伽
name of a town
dàjué 大觉 大覺
mayabodhi
the supreme bodhi or Great Enlightenment
Dàlín Jīngshè 大林精舍 大林精舍
Great Forest Hermitage or Venuvana monastery
Dàlín Jīngshè 大林精舍 大林精舍
Hermitage of the Great Wood
Dápú-shā 达菩沙 達菩沙
Trapusa
an early follower
dìzǐ 弟子 弟子
follower, disciple
E
Ēlā-chūn 阿拉春 阿拉春
a prince at the court of King Jìngfàn
Ē-luóbì-kēpān 阿罗毕疴潘 阿羅畢疴潘
A mango grove to which Xīdá-duō went after leaving his live as a prince.
an early disciple.
ē-luóhàn 阿罗汉 阿羅漢
See luóhàn.
Ēluó-lán 阿罗蓝 阿羅藍
Ārada Kālāma
a famous religious teacher
Ēmítuó-fó 阿弥陀佛 阿彌陀佛
Amitābha buddha
the Amida or Amitabha buddha
Ēnán 阿难 阿難 or Ēnántuó 阿难陀 阿難陀
Ānanda
prince at the court of King Jìngfàn and cousin of the Buddha. He became the Buddha's most intimate disciple. He was famed for his memory, and is sometimes called Duōwén 多闻 多聞 or "Heard Much" because he remembered teachings and compiled scriptures after the death of the Buddha. He was a central figure in the first Buddhist council and the establishment of a canon.
Ēnán-dàdé 阿难大德 阿難大德
See Ēnán.
Ēnán-tuó 阿难陀 阿難陀
See Ēnán.
Ēnuó-lǜ 阿那律 阿那律
a prince at the court of King Jìngfàn
Ēnuò-píyé 阿诺毘耶 阿諾毘耶
name of a village
Ēruò Jiāo-chénrú 阿若憍陈如 阿若憍陳如
Ājñāta-kāundinya
See Jiāo-chénrú.
Ēshé-shì 阿阇世 阿闍世
Ajātaśatru
the son of King Pínpó-suōluó and friend of Típó-dáduō
Ēshuō-shì 阿说示 阿說示
Assaj, Aśvajit
a servant of King Jìngfàn
Ēsī-tuó 阿私陀 阿私陀
name of a sage
F
dharma
"law" and by extension Buddhist doctrine
buddha
fófǎ 佛法 佛法
buddhadharma
doctrines of the buddhas. The term fǎ means law, but in a Buddhist context the intended meaning is the principles underlying cosmic principles like karma and reincarnation, so the translation "law," like fǎ itself, while traditional, is misleading.
fótuó 佛陀 佛陀
buddha
G
gòngyàng 供养 供養
act of merit; to offer sustenance to a mendicant
H
Hātí 哈提 哈提
name of a village
hóngfǎ 弘法 弘法
spreading the doctrine
J
jèngjué 正觉 正覺
perfect awareness
Jiā-bǐlā 迦比拉 迦比拉
a prince at the court of King Jìngfàn
Jiāliú-tuóyí 迦留陀夷 迦留陀夷
Kālodāyin
name of a one-time playmate (or teacher) of Xīdá-duō
Jiānzhì 犍陟 犍陟
Kanthaka or Kantakanam, name of Xīdá-duō's horse, also known as Mǎwáng 马王 馬王 , King of Horses
Jiāo-chénrú 憍陈如 憍陳如 or Qiáo-chénrú 乔陈如 喬陳如
Kondanna, Ājñāta-Kaundinya
Jiāpí-luó 迦毘罗 迦毘羅 or Jiébǐluó 劫比罗 劫比羅
Kapilavastu or Kapilavatthu (possibly Tiraulakot in modern Nepal)
Jiāqū-cuǒ 迦屈瑳 迦屈瑳
name of a river
Jiāyè 迦叶 迦葉
surname of three brothers
jiè
precaution, regulation, prohibition (often translated "precept" in English, which carries less sense of prohibition)
Jiéfǎ-wàidào 结发外道 結髮外道
name of a hamlet
Jǐgūdú-zhǎngzhě 给孤独长者 給孤獨長者
name of a supporter
Jìngfǎ Jié 敬法节 敬法節
the "Festival of Reverencing the Law."
Jìngfàn 净饭 淨飯 Dronodana rāja (same as 斛饭王 斛飯王?)
father of the Buddha
jīngshè 精舍 精舍
hermitage, religious cottage or retreat
jīngxíng 经行 經行
scripture walking, i.e., walking during meditation or religious contemplation, as around a meditation hall
jìsòng 偈诵 偈誦
to recite, chant
jué
bodhi
understanding, awakening.
juéwù 觉悟 覺悟
awakening, consciousness, awareness
Jūlǜ-tuó 拘律陀 拘律陀
name of a seeker
jūshì 居士 居士
home-dwelling follower
Jūshī-nuó 拘尸那 拘尸那
Kuśinagara
name of a city (Kasiah, northwest of Patna), where the Buddha died.
K
Kāiyuán Chánsì 开元禅寺 開元禪寺
a monastery in Táinán, where Jordan lived in 1976
Kǔxíng Lín 苦行林 苦行林
Uruvilva Kāśyapa
Forest of Mortification
L
Lán-píní 蓝毘尼 藍毘尼 or Lán-píní 岚毘尼 嵐毘尼
Lumbini or Lumbinī
name of the park where the Buddha was born
lòujìn zhì 漏尽智 漏盡智
āsravaksaya-jñāna
consciousness of detachment
luóhàn 罗汉 羅漢
arhan, arhat
generic name for early disciples. Various numbers or sets of luóhàn are honored in temples, most commonly a set of 18. Some figures regarded as luóhàn in southern Buddhism are regarded as púsà in Mahayana.
Luó-hóuluó 罗睺罗 羅睺羅
Rahulo, Rāhula
name of Xīdá-duō's son. The name means "obstacle" or "eclipse," but is sometimes interpreted in Chinese as meaning "circle," referring to the circle of commitments that prevent concentration on salvation.
Lùyě yuàn 鹿野怨 鹿野怨
Uruvela, Mrgadāva
place name
M
Mǎwáng 马王 馬王 , see Jiānzhì.
Mílè-fó 弥勒佛 彌勒佛
Maitreya
the buddha of the future
Móhē-bōshé-bōtí 摩诃波阇波提 摩訶波闍波提
Mahā-prajāpati (also
Dà'àidào 大爱道 大愛道 )
name of Xīdá-duō's aunt
Móhē-nán 摩诃男 摩訶男
Mahā-nama (same as Mónán-jùlì 摩男俱力 摩男俱力 or mónán-jūlì 摩男拘利 摩男拘利, Mahānāma-Kulika)
an early disciple
Mójiē-tuó 摩揭陀 摩揭陀
Māgadha, the kingdom in which the Buddha was born, regarded as the heartland of Buddhism
Mòluó 末罗 末羅
name of a clan
Móyé 摩耶 摩耶
Mahāmāyā, Māyā, or Mātrkā , mother of Xīdá-duō
Mùguā Lín 木瓜林 木瓜林
Uruvilva
a papaya grove
Mùjiān-lián 目犍连 目犍連
Mahāmaudgalyāyana
religious name of Jūlǜ-tuó 拘律陀 拘律陀, a disciple and assistant of Xīdá-duō
N
Nántuó 难陀 難陀
younger second cousin of Xīdá-duō
niànsòng 念诵 唸誦
recite, chant
nièpán 涅槃 涅槃
nirvāna
nirvana, a state of escape from the cycle of reincarnation; complete extinction of individual existence (regarded as desirable because existence entails suffering)
Níliánchán 尼连禅 尼連禪
name of a river
Nuódí 那笛 那笛
name of a river
Nuólā-jílǐ 那拉吉里 那拉吉裏
name of an elephant
P
Pēntuó-wā 奔陀洼 奔陀窪
place name
Pínpó-suōluó 频婆娑罗 頻婆娑羅
Bimbisāra or Bimbasāra
a king
póluó-mén 婆罗门 婆羅門
Brāhman
Brahman (highest caste in ancient India, from which priests were drawn); polite term for a religious teacher
Pōluótí mùchā jiàojiè 波罗提木叉教诫 波羅提木叉教誡
text of the precepts taught at the Jìngfǎ Jié
Póshā-bō 婆沙波 婆沙波 or Shílìjiāyè 十力迦叶 十力迦葉
Vappa or Daśabala-Kāśyapa
an early follower
Pósuō 婆娑 婆娑
a prince at the court of King Jìngfàn
Púlì-jiā 菩利迦 菩利迦
Bhallika
an early follower
púsà 菩萨 菩薩
bodhisattva
a person who has qualified for nirvana but holds back in order to share his or her merit with suffering humanity to help others on the way to nirvana. (Short for pútí-sàduǒ 菩提萨埵 菩提薩埵, which is rarely used.)
pútí 菩提 菩提
bodhi
knowledge, truth, wisdom. The pútí tree is a kind of fig.
Q
Qiáo-chénrú 乔陈如 喬陳如
See Jiāo-chénrú.
Qiáo-dámó 乔答摩 喬答摩
Shuddhodana (surname)
Qípó 耆婆 耆婆
name of a doctor
Qíshé-kū 耆阇窟 耆闍窟
place name
Qíyuán jīngshè 祇园精舍 祇園精舍
Earthgod Garden Hermitage (at the town of Shèwèi 舍卫 舍衛 )
Qūtán 瞿昙 瞿曇 or Qiáo-dámó 喬答摩 喬答摩
Gautama (surname)
R
Rándēng-fó 燃灯佛 燃燈佛
the "Lamplighter Buddha" who preceded Shìjiā-móuní.
Rénbù 仁布 仁布
name of a village
Rúlái 如来 如來
title taken by the Buddha. It literally means "thus come."
S
sānbǎo 三宝 三寶 (1)
triratna, or ratnatraya
three treasures (fó, fǎ, sēng)
sānbǎo 三宝 三寶(2)
Three statues in the main hall of some temples: The particular combination varies, but is usually Sìjiāfó in the middle, with Yàoshī on his left hand and Ēmítuó on his right.
sēng
sangha
Buddhist priest or priesthood
shāmén 沙门 沙門
śramaṇa
any kind of ascetic (also used for shamans); a dàshāmén 大沙门 大沙門 (mahāśramaņa) or "great shāmén," is an honorific title for the Buddha or for high-ranking Buddhists.
shāmí 沙弥 沙彌
disciple in the new Buddhist movement, a category of follower slightly below a bǐqiū.
Shànjué 善觉 善覺 or Shànjué-zhǎngzhě 善觉长者 善覺長者
Suprabuddha
Shànshēng 善生 善生
Sujāta
name of a person
Shān-shéyé 删阇耶 刪闍耶
name of a religious teacher
Shè-lìfú 舍利弗 舍利弗
Śāriputra
religious name of Yōubō-shìshā 优波室沙 優波室沙, a disciple and assistant
shēng-lǎo-bìng-sǐ 生老病死 生老病死
birth, old age, sickness, and death
shèngrén 圣人 聖人
saintly person
Shèwèi 舍卫 舍衛
name of a town
Shìjiā 释迦 釋迦
Shakya or Śākya
Shìjiā-fó 释迦佛 釋迦佛
Śākyamuni buddha
Shìjiā-móuní 释迦牟尼 釋迦牟尼
Śākyamuni
Shìzūn 世尊 世尊
lokajyestha, lokanātha, bhagavan, bhagavat
"Lord of the World," a title of the Buddha
monastery
Sūdìyé 苏谛耶 蘇諦耶
name of a person
sùmìng zhì 宿命智 宿命智
pūrvanivāsānusmṛti-(jñāna)
consciousness of fate
suōluó 娑罗 娑羅
a kind of tree
Sūyé-dánǚ 苏耶妲女 蘇耶妲女
name of a maiden who nursed the Buddha back to health
T
Táinán 台南 臺南
a city in Táiwān
Táiwān 台湾 臺灣
a province of China
tàizǐ 太子 太子
prince
Tiānbì 天臂 天臂
See Tiānbì-chéng.
Tiānbì-chéng 天臂城 天臂城
Devadarsita or Devadista
tiānyǎn zhì 天眼智 天眼智
divyacaksus
consciousness of universal insight
Tiānzūn 天尊 天尊
"Celestial Lord," a title of the Buddha (also by Daoists to refer to their divinities as counterparts of the Buddhist term Shìzūn.)
Típó-dáduō 提婆达多 提婆達多
Devadatta
a prince at the court of King Jìngfàn and cousin and rival of the Buddha.
tuōbō 托钵 托鉢
a begging bowl; to beg with a bowl
W
wàidào 外道 外道
heretic, wild non-conformist
wánggēng jié 王耕节 王耕節
plowing festival
Wángshè 王舍城 王舍城
Rājagrha name of a town
wǔ'è 五恶 五惡
See wǔjiè.
wǔjiè 五戒 五戒
pañca-veramanī
five prohibitions binding on the laity as well as on clerics (namely against killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and intoxication, or in Chinese bù shāshēng; bù tōudào; bù xiéyín; bù wàngyǔ; bùyǐnjiǔ 不杀生; 不偷盗; 不邪淫; 不妄语; 不飮酒 不殺生; 不偸盜; 不邪婬; 不妄語; 不飮酒 ) Also called the five sins (wǔ'è 五恶 五惡 ).
wúsuǒyǒu chùdìng 无所有处定 無所有處定
knowledge of things of this world and other worlds; contemplation of nothingness, producing serenity
Wúwǒxiàng jīng 无我相经 無我相經
"Scripture of Non-Self"
X
xiānrén 仙人 仙人
rici
holy men (technically earth-dwelling immortals), generic term for a holy man or sage, carrying an implication of magic
Xīdá-duō 悉达多 悉達多
Siddhartha, Siddhārtha, Sarvāthasiddha
Xīlián-chán 熙连禅 熙連禪
name of a river
Xī-nuóní 西那尼 西那尼
place name
xiūdào 修道 修道
to practice religious austerities
xiūdàozhě 修道者 修道者
ascetics, wandering monks
xiūfànxíng 修梵行 修梵行
the way to avoid suffering and/or gain religious merit by leading an ascetic life
Xūbá-tuóluó 须跋陀罗 須跋陀羅
the Buddha's last convert
Y
yánfú 严浮 嚴浮
a kind of tree
Yàoshī-fó 药师佛 藥師佛
Bhaisajyaguru , Bhaisajya buddha
the buddha of medicine
Yéshè 耶舍 耶舍
name of a person, a disciple of Ēnán.
Yéshū-tuóluó 耶输陀罗 耶輸陀羅
Yashodhara,Yaśodharā
wife of Xīdá-duō
yīnguǒ 因果 因果
cause and effect
Yōubō-shìshā 优波室沙 優波室沙
name of a seeker
Yōulóu-pínluó 优楼频螺 優樓頻螺
place name
Yùtuó-luójiā 郁陀罗迦 郁陀羅迦
Udraka Ramaputra, name of a sage
Z
Zhānbù-zhōu 瞻部洲 瞻部洲
ancient name of India
zhāntán'ěr 旃檀耳 旃檀耳
"sandalwood ear," a fruit or fungus of the sandalwood tree.
zhèngjué 正觉 正覺
sambodhi
perfect awareness, the wisdom or omniscience of a buddha. Here translated "great awakening."
zhēnlǐ 真理 真理
true Principle, true way
Zhuǎn fǎlún jīng 转法轮经 轉法輪經
Dharmatchakra-pravartana sūtra
Scripture of the Turning of the Wheel of the Law
Zhuǎnlún shèngwáng 转轮圣王 轉輪聖王
title of an ancient king
Zhúlín 竹林 竹林
"Bamboo Grove," name of a village
Zhúlín Jīngshè 竹林精舍 竹林精舍
Bamboo Forest Retreat, the first monastery

 

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