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Lesson 13: Causatives

The endings -tia and -ltia are used to make a verb "causative," usually translatable with English "cause," "enable," or "make," as in "cause [someone] to Vb")

miqui = to die
mic.tia = to kill (lit.: make die)
ti.miqui = you die
ni.tëch.mic.tia = I kill you

Because they end in two vowels, all causative verbs are type-3.

As with the applicative, the reflexive prefix in combination with a causative ending makes a referential, although very slightly less commonly.

If the verb is already causative, a reverential can be formed by adding the applicative ending with an additional reflexive prefix. (And in fact if the verb is already both causative and applicative, it can be made reverential by adding yet an additional applicative endings and yet another reflexive prefix!)

Examples

   

-.mo.mic.tia = miqui
ni.c.no.mic.tilia = nicmictia
ni.qui.xca in comitl
niquixcatia in comitl
niquixcatilia in comitl
ni.tëch.ixca.ti.li.a in comitl
ni.tëch.no.xca.ti.li.lia
nitëchnoxcatililia


miqui Vi2 = to die
Ixca Vt1 = to fire, cook, bake
comitl = pot


   

tlahtoa
-.mo.tlahto.ltia = tlahtoa
-.qui.tlahto.ltia
-.nëch.tlahto.ltih in nonantzin
-.quin.tlahto.ltih.queh in ïn.ciua.huän
quimotlahtoltilia
quïza
ni.mitz.quïxtia
xi.c.huäl.quix.tia


tlahtoa Vi3 = to speak
tlahtoltia Vt3 = to interrogate
quïza Vi2 = to exit
quïxtia Vt3 = to dismiss, send out
 (Z becomes X before T.)


   

tipahtih
timitzpahtih
nicpahtia in nopil
nopahtitia
ninocpahtilia in nopil


pahti Vi1 = to get well
pahtitia (= pahtia) Vt3 = to cure, make well
pilli = child, son


   

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Challenge A: Describe in your own words the difference between applicative and causative endings, both in their formation, and in their use.

Challenge B: Pick three verbs and show how their causative and applicative meanings contrast with each other.

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