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Content Revised 080527
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Most Ancient China

Appendix:
Major Pre-Shāng Archaeological Sites
& "Archaeological Cultures"*

* Definition of Culture

Shortcuts: Introduction, Prehistory, The Xià Dynasty,
The Shāng Dynasty, The Zhōu Dynasty, Site List
Chronology Window

6000-5000 BC

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Northern China
Xīnglóngwā 兴隆洼 (About 6000-5000 BC) Northern Chinese "archaeological culture" of Liáoníng (LN) and Northern Húběi (HB).
Yellow River Basin
Peílǐgǎng 裴李岗 (About 6500-5100 BC) Yellow River Basin Chinese "archaeological culture" of Shāndōng (SD), HN, and parts of Shānxī (SX), sometimes also known as the Císhān / Péilǐgǎng 磁山/裴李岗 "archaeological culture."
Lǎoguāntái 老官台 (About 6000-5100 BC) Yellow River Basin Chinese "archaeological culture" of Shǎanxī (SN) and parts of Shānxī (SX).
Běixīn 北辛 (About 6000-5000 BC) Yellow River Basin Chinese "archaeological culture" of Shāndōng (SD).
Lower Yangzi Basin
Zèngpīyān 甑皮岩 (About 5700 BC) Southern Chinese "archaeological culture" of the southeastern Coast.
Xiānréndòng 仙人洞 (About 5700 BC) Southern Chinese "archaeological culture" of the middle Yangzi River area.
Hémǔdù 河姆度 (About 5500-5100 BC) Southern Chinese "archaeological culture" of Jiāngsū (JS) and Zhèjiāng (ZJ). The site in Zhèjiāng (ZJ) after which it is named is also associated with the Liángzhǔ 良渚 "archaeological culture."

5000-3000

Northern China
Hóngshān 红山 (About 5000-2800 BC) Northern Chinese "archaeological culture" of Liáoníng (LN) and Northern Húběi (HB).
Northwestern China
Mǎjiāyáo 马家窑 (About 3100-2400 BC) Northern Chinese "archaeological culture" of Gānsù (GS) and Qīnghǎi (QH).
Yellow River Basin
Yǎngsháo 仰韶 (About 5100-2700 BC) Yellow River Basin Chinese "archaeological culture" of very broad geographical range, including HEB, Hénán (HEN), Shānxī (SX), Shǎanxī (SN), and (ending about -3300) Gānsù (GS) and Qīnghǎi (QH). It is associated especially with a characteristic red pottery, sometimes called the "Yǎngsháo red pottery tradition." For this reason in Chinese it was formerly sometimes called the "painted pottery culture" or cǎitáo wénhuà 彩陶文化.
Lǐjiācūn 李家村 Middle Neolithic site in Shǎanxī (SN) in the Yǎngshāo 仰韶 red pottery tradition.
Dàwènkǒu 大汶口 (About 5000-2800 BC) Yellow River Basin Chinese "archaeological culture" of Shāndōng (SD). The early portion of this is sometimes referred to as Qīngliángǎng 青莲岗.
Middle and Lower Yanzi Basin
Dàxī 大溪 (About 5100-4000 BC) Southern Chinese "archaeological culture" of the middle Yangzi River area.
Qūjiā lǐng 屈家岭 (About 4000-2700 BC) Southern Chinese "archaeological culture" of the middle Yangzi River area.
Mǎjiābāng 马家浜 (About 5100-4200 BC) Southern Chinese "archaeological culture" of Jiāngsū (JS) and Zhèjiāng (ZJ).
Sōngzé 松泽 (About 4200-3000 BC) Southern Chinese "archaeological culture" of Jiāngsū (JS) and Zhèjiāng (ZJ).
Liángzhǔ 良渚 (About 3400-2300 BC) Southern Chinese "archaeological culture" of Jiāngsū (JS) and Zhèjiāng (ZJ).

3000-2000 BC

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North China
Xiàjiādiàn (Lower) 夏家店 (Began about 2800) Northern Chinese "archaeological culture" of Liáoníng (LN) and Northern Húběi (HB).
Hòugāng 后冈 (Began about 2700) Northern Chinese "archaeological culture" of HEB. Sometimes referred to as Ānyáng 安阳. (Caution: Ānyáng was the seat of government in the late Shāng dynasty, much later than the Hòugāng period.)
Yellow River Basin
Lóngshān 龙山 (Began about 2700) Extremely widespread Chinese "archaeological culture" found especially in Shǎanxī (SN), Shāndōng (SD) in the north and in Húběi (HB) further south.
Táosì 陶寺 (About 2700-2200 BC) Northern Chinese "archaeological culture" of Hénán (HEN).

Possible Xià Sites

Northern China and Yellow River Basin
Qíjiā 齐家 (Began about 2400) Northwestern Chinese "archaeological culture" of Gānsù (GS) and Qīnghǎi (QH).
Èrlǐtóu 二里头 (Began about 2200) Yellow River Basin Chinese site in Hénán (HEN) and "archaeological culture" of Hénán (HEN) region.
Dōngxiàmǎ 东下马 site in Xià County in Shānxī (SX)


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